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electrolytic coloring

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001177
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
...). After five months one of the coils, which consisted of tubes having a wall thickness of 3.4 mm, developed a leak. Tightly closed cracks were seen on the outer surface of the tube. Further tests with color penetration process revealed multiple branched cracks. Longitudinal section showed that the cracks...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001387
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... structure. Results indicated the presence of alpha-iron ( Fig. 7 ). The electrical conductivity of the powder was measured, and it was found to be a good conductor of electricity. During operation of the heavy-water upgrading plant, the electrolyte came in contact with the carbon steel top of the anode...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.bldgs.c9001653
EISBN: 978-1-62708-219-8
..., the color near the key changed from yellow to red-brown. The gate was made from leaded red brass (85-5-5-5) while the spindle was made from silicon brass. It was concluded that the valves failed by dezincification resulting from bimetallic galvanic corrosion. It is common in the valve industry to use...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c0046512
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... diffraction) supported the conclusions that leakage was the result of galvanic corrosion of the aluminum alloy spacers while in storage. The molybdenum disulfide was apparently suspended in a volatile water-containing vehicle that acted as an electrolyte between the aluminum alloy spacer and the nickel-plated...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.auto.c9001704
EISBN: 978-1-62708-218-1
... and the potential contribution of other possible corrosion mechanisms should be evaluated. One characteristic of MIC that sets it apart from other types of corrosion is the presence of mound-like surface deposits with a black or reddish-brown color. Black corrosion deposits are generally composed of iron...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.steel.c9001224
EISBN: 978-1-62708-232-7
... the sections after the usual etching with V2A-Beize which only attacks the austenitic matrix, were first etched electrolytically in a 1:10 dilution of saturated ammonia water at a terminal voltage of 1.5 V. This served to dissolve the chromium carbide and color it by means of a brown precipitate. Immediately...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001808
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... of the supply line, 1× original magnification Fig. 5 Schematic of the corrosion growth in Fig. 4 Fig. 6 Small surface pits on the ID of the drain piping, 26× original magnification Fig. 7 Subsurface cavity in the drain piping, 50× original magnification, electrolytic oxalic etch...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006760
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... of the material. Frequently there are multiple origins. During macro examination, beach marks, sometimes referred to as clam shell marks or crack-arrest marks, can often be observed. Beach marks are macroscale features that represent the crack growth over some period of time. Different coloration of adjacent...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c0048791
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
.... There was no evidence of continuous grain-boundary precipitates typical of sensitized material. The cross section was repolished and etched electrolytically with NaOH to search for other second phases, such as σ and χ; no evidence of these phases was found. Three mechanical test specimens with cracks were cut from...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006824
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
...×. (d) Scanning electron micrographs showing gamma-prime precipitate structure at cool outer shroud region (upper) and mid-airfoil leading edge (lower). Etched with chromic acid, electrolytic Optical microscopy revealed the crack to have a relatively straight, transgranular path. The crack...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001379
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... are depicted schematically. A dark area identified as Zone 1 located at the periphery of the circular fracture face was observed. This region resembled a crescent moon in geometry and contained coarse river markings indicative of crack growth. The origin of the black color encompassing Zone 1 did not appear...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006871
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
.... , Surface Temperatures of Color Painted Specimens in Natural and Artificial Weathering With Different Laboratory Light Sources for Optimized Testing and Investigations, 4th European Weathering Symposium , Budapest , September , 2009 • Searle N. , Activation Spectra: Techniques...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001667
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
...-colored oxidized surface region was observed adjacent to the circumferential butt weld joining the two cylinders. This led to the concern that oxygen was introduced into the part during the welding procedure and caused alpha case formation of the surface of the titanium which could lead to detrimental...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006765
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... all of the structure at first. Later, it may be useful to use a selective etchant that reveals only the phase or constituent of interest or at least produces strong contrast or color differences between two or more phases present, to improve the precision of microstructural measurements or to better...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003549
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... or cathodic reactions. High-molecular-weight amines retard the hydrogen-evolution reaction and subsequently reduce corrosion rate. Adequate conductivity in both the metal and the electrolyte is required for continuation of the corrosion reaction. Of course, it is not practical to increase the electrical...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001020
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... Examination of General Physical Features Testing Procedure and Results Surface Examination Visual There was virtually no observable plastic deformation associated with the primary fractures, as all had a brittle appearance. The fractured surfaces were dull gray in color and granular in texture...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003532
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
..., and electrolytic polishing. The article also describes the microstructure examination of various materials, with emphasis on failure analysis, and concludes with information on the examination of replicas with light microscopy. electrolytic polishing failure analysis field metallography fracture...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006939
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... Inorganic pigments Organic pigments Varieties of chromatography Less variety, narrow spectrum More varieties, wider spectrum Color characteristics Lower brightness, dark Bright Tinting strength Low color strength High color strength Special dosage forms Lower than organic Variety...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006783
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
..., and crevice corrosion can all be exacerbated by galvanic conditions. Galvanic corrosion occurs when two dissimilar conducting materials (metallic or nonmetallic) are in electrical contact with an electrolyte or conducting medium. It usually consists of two dissimilar conductors in electrical contact...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006782
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... on the metal surface or by interfering with either the anodic or cathodic reactions. High-molecular-weight amines retard the hydrogen-evolution reaction and subsequently reduce corrosion rate. Adequate conductivity in both the metal and the electrolyte is required for continuation of the corrosion reaction...