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electroless plating

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001589
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... Abstract The paper discusses the analysis of a coating defect on a high phosphorus electroless nickel (Ni-11 wt. % P) deposit plated on an aluminum alloy substrate. Preliminary investigations had indicated that the elongated defects were possibly caused by the entrapment of long fibers...
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Published: 01 June 2019
Fig. 13 General Pitting Corrosion Beneath Electroless Nickel Plating Which Has Been Degraded by High Temperature Exposure. More
Image
Published: 01 June 2019
Fig. 1 Electroless nickel underplating and gold plating on a copper alloy CDA175 module retaining clip. (a) shows a good plated clip and (b) shows a bad clip with copper oxide (black layer) at the copper/alloy nickel plating interface, where the separation occurred. More
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001492
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... Abstract Electroless nickel plating separation from copper alloy CDA175 retaining clips used on printed circuit boards was caused by a copper oxide layer that reduced adhesion of the nickel plating on the clips. Stresses that developed during module insertion caused flaking to occur...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c0006448
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
... it is possible to crack hardened type 440C during the chromium plating process. An inspection for pitting on the bearing inner diam was also recommended. It was suggested that electroless nickel be used as a coating for the entire bearing. A review of the chromium plating and baking sequence was recommended also...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c9001145
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
... configuration of the chamber and the stress distribution also have a bearing upon the failure modes. Several failures are reviewed to illustrate the problems. Aircraft components Breech chambers Electroless nickel plating Overheating 4340 UNS G43400 High-temperature corrosion and oxidation Stress...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001805
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... – 330 . 10.31399/asm.hb.v23.a0005686 Background Case Study 1: 420 Stainless Steel Scissor Failure Case Study 2: Electroless Nickel Plating Case Study 3: Guide Wire Fracture Case Study 4: Fractured Surgical Table Caster Conclusions Case Study 5: Fractured Cable Stop Several...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001493
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... tested from one side of the board but lost when tested from the other. In a fourth case, an open circuit found between a plated through-hole and contact pad on a six-layer printed circuit board was caused by an etching defect. Copper plating Printed circuits Electroless copper Surface treatment...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c0048767
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... the weldment may have been stress relieved as specified, stress-relief annealing was apparently incapable of reducing the high hardness of the localized bands caused by alloy mixing. Chemical analysis of the plating material showed it to be nickel, probably electroless nickel because it had a high hardness...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003532
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... a transparent mount, which is helpful when trying to grind to a specific feature, but provide poor edge retention ( Fig. 11c ). Electroless nickel plating is an effective method for improving edge retention, particularly for steels. However, if the area to be studied is white or with low contrast, it may...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006765
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
..., such as methyl methacrylate, produce a transparent mount, which is helpful when trying to grind to a specific feature, but provide poor edge retention. Electroless nickel plating is an effective method for improving edge retention, particularly for steels. However, if the area to be studied is white or with low...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c9001504
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
... of the axle ( Figs 2 ). The 0.755 m (29.7 in) long axle was made from AISI H11 tool steel tube and heat treated to a UTS in the 1650–1790 MPa (240–260 ksi) range except for the ends which were in the 1240–1380 MPa (180–200 ksi) range. The outside surface was chromium plated to a thickness of 0.05 to 0.075 mm...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003520
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... by electroless nickel plating. It is clear that the cleavage cracks in the brittle specimen are crystallographic. Note the small microvoids that form around precipitates just behind the fracture path. These have sometimes been claimed erroneously to be preexisting voids. Fig. 9 Brittle (a) and ductile (b...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006782
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
...: (Eq 19) Zn → Zn 2 + + 2 e − and (Eq 20) Cu 2 + + 2 e − → Cu The zinc initially becomes plated with copper; eventually, given enough time and reactants, the products are copper sponge and zinc sulfate solution. During corrosion, more than one oxidation...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003522
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
..., as in the case of a narrow or plate specimen, as shown in Fig. 6 , may be seen if a slice running across from the fracture origin in Fig. 7 is considered. Fig. 5 Fatigue fracture surface appearance of a failed crankshaft, showing “beach marks” on the lower part. The origin of the primary fracture...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006757
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... . Figure 7 shows the fracture origin of a brittle fracture of a shaft; the chevrons are spread out in this case, but their appearance, as in the case of a narrow or plate specimen, as shown in Fig. 6 , may be seen if a slice running across from the fracture origin in Fig. 7 is considered. Fig. 5...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006827
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... structure, which more easily leads to stress concentration in the solder joint ( Fig. 4 ). Fig. 4 Copper-tin (Cu 6 Sn 5 ) and silver-tin (Ag 3 Sn) intermetallic compound morphology in a solder ball In addition to the copper-tin and silver-tin IMCs, tin also reacts with several plating metals...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001818
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... by alloy mixing. Chemical analysis of the plating material showed it to be nickel, probably electroless nickel because it had a high hardness. Conclusions The clapper failed by fatigue and brittle fracture because it was welded with an incorrect filler metal. Fatigue cracking was initiated at voids...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006770
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... of a solder joint for a component on a printed circuit board. A high concentration of phosphorus indicates degradation of the electroless nickel plating during subsequent gold plating on the printed circuit board bond pad. Elemental maps of a sample surface provide graphic illustrations...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006812
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... be incorrect, or the metallurgical properties may not meet requirements. This often results from a misunderstanding of the operating conditions by the designer. A common cause of failure of pressure vessels is the use of an alloy other than the one specified. Sometimes, bars or plates are not properly...