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electroless plating

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001589
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... (a) Microstructure of filter material used in the Nickel plating tank. (b) Microstructure and the EDS spectra from the filter material used in the air ducts above the plating line. Abstract Abstract The paper discusses the analysis of a coating defect on a high phosphorus electroless nickel (Ni-11 wt. % P...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001492
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... Fig. 1 Electroless nickel underplating and gold plating on a copper alloy CDA175 module retaining clip. (a) shows a good plated clip and (b) shows a bad clip with copper oxide (black layer) at the copper/alloy nickel plating interface, where the separation occurred. Fig. 2 Cross...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c0006448
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
... it is possible to crack hardened type 440C during the chromium plating process. An inspection for pitting on the bearing inner diam was also recommended. It was suggested that electroless nickel be used as a coating for the entire bearing. A review of the chromium plating and baking sequence was recommended also...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c9001145
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
... configuration of the chamber and the stress distribution also have a bearing upon the failure modes. Several failures are reviewed to illustrate the problems. Aircraft components Breech chambers Electroless nickel plating Overheating 4340 UNS G43400 High-temperature corrosion and oxidation Stress...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003532
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... with 10N KOH (electrolytic). The brittle sigma phase caused extensive cracking in a 25%Cr-12%Ni cast heat treatment basket hook. Figure 40 shows surface damage due to wear on a 4485 alloy steel medart roll. The specimen was plated with electroless nickel for edge retention. Some of the nickel can...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006765
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... are badly damaged. The thermoplastic resins, such as methyl methacrylate, produce a transparent mount, which is helpful when trying to grind to a specific feature, but provide poor edge retention. Electroless nickel plating is an effective method for improving edge retention, particularly for steels...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001805
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... corrosion pits delamination brittle cleavage SEM/EDS analysis tensile yield strength 420 (martensitic stainless steel) UNS S42000 AMS 2404E (electroless nickel plating) Background Case Study 1: 420 Stainless Steel Scissor Failure Case Study 2: Electroless Nickel Plating Case Study 3...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c0048767
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... by alloy mixing. Chemical analysis of the plating material showed it to be nickel, probably electroless nickel because it had a high hardness. The clapper failed by fatigue and brittle fracture because it was welded with an incorrect filler metal. Fatigue cracking was initiated at voids and high-hardness...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001493
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... Fig. 1 (a) Optical photo of PCB showing the locations of pads at U15-3 and U7-15; an electrical open was found between these two pads. 1× (b) Overall cross-section showing the area of failure (arrows), 20× and (c) is a detailed view showing cracks in the thin copper plating area. 100...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c9001504
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
... contact surfaces were chromium plated, while the non-contact surfaces were coated with ion vapour deposited (IVD) aluminium. The inside of the hub, which has a polygon shape to accommodate a crank lever, was coated with electroless nickel. Fig. 3 a: Main landing gear components: broken axle (1...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006782
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... e − and (Eq 20) Cu 2 + + 2 e − → Cu The zinc initially becomes plated with copper; eventually, given enough time and reactants, the products are copper sponge and zinc sulfate solution. During corrosion, more than one oxidation and one reduction reaction can occur. When...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003522
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... or it can be plated electrolytically or using electroless solutions before being mounted. In general, electroless plating using nickel, copper, iron, or chromium is the preferred method, because bonding is superior, with less tendency for the plating to separate than with electrolytically plated specimens...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006757
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... electrolytically or using electroless solutions before being mounted. In general, electroless plating using nickel, copper, iron, or chromium is the preferred method, because bonding is superior, with less tendency for the plating to separate than with electrolytically plated specimens. Hard mounting materials...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003520
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... vertical metallographic sections through ductile and brittle fractures that were preserved by electroless nickel plating. It is clear that the cleavage cracks in the brittle specimen are crystallographic. Note the small microvoids that form around precipitates just behind the fracture path. These have...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006770
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... spectrometer (EDS) line scan on a polished cross at the bond interface of a solder joint for a component on a printed circuit board. A high concentration of phosphorus indicates degradation of the electroless nickel plating during subsequent gold plating on the printed circuit board bond pad. Elemental...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003549
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... + + 2 e (Eq 20) Cu 2 + + 2 e → Cu The zinc initially becomes plated with copper and eventually, given enough time and reactants, the products are copper sponge and zinc sulfate solution. During corrosion, more than one oxidation and one reduction reaction may occur...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003524
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... has been developed, it can be examined by placing it in front of a light source. The intensity of the light passing through the film will be proportional to the density of the sample and the path length of the radiation. Thus, lighter areas on the plate correspond to the denser areas of the sample...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006789
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... is too high, the hard phases could break or be pulled out from the matrix, thus increasing the wear rate.) Some coatings, such as some electroless nickel deposits or WC-Co deposits obtained by plasma spray, display lower wear resistance than expected because they may be quite defective...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001818
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... be incorrect, or the metallurgical properties may not meet requirements. This often results from a misunderstanding of the operating conditions by the designer. A common cause of failure of pressure vessels is use of an alloy other than the one specified. Sometimes, bars or plates are not properly marked...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003544
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1