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electrode reactions

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001674
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... that the preferential attack of the gold was due to HCN formed by decomposition of the explosive powder at high temperatures. Other associated reactions were also observed including the subsequent attack of the solder by the gold corrosion product and degradation of the plastic header. Bridgewires Detonators...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.bldgs.c9001702
EISBN: 978-1-62708-219-8
..., aggregate reactions, surface air permeability, and a microbial survey. Beam Condition Survey Visual observations showed a thin layer of cementitious material partially delaminating from the outer surface of the beam. This layer contained the linseed oil applied in 1969. It was removed by sand...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006794
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... wear test WEAR is defined as surface damage with gradual removal of material from solid surfaces by abrasives or a counterface in relative motion. Corrosion is the deterioration of a metal as a result of chemical reactions between it and the surrounding environment, involving metal dissolution...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003549
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... maintenance. corrosion corrosion failure analysis corrosion monitoring electrochemical corrosion galvanic protection inhibitors metallic coatings nonmetallic coatings preventive maintenance surface treatments thermal spray CORROSION is the deterioration of a material by a reaction...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006913
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... with simple test electrodes. Specimens may be molded, cast, or cut from flat sheet or plate. The standard electrode configurations used for different dielectric strength tests of insulating materials are listed in Table 1 . Any of these widely used test methods developed and published by the ASTM...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001769
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... with voltamaster-1 software. Mild steel coupon of size 1 cm 2 as working electrode a Saturated Calomel Electrode (SCE) as a reference electrode and a large platinum electrode were employed for polarization study. The system was allowed to attain a steady potential value for 10 min. The steady-state polarization...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c9001525
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
..., suggesting that the corrosion debris contained potassium hydroxide. This substance, which is somewhat corrosive to carbon steel under certain conditions, likely formed as a reaction product from the alkaline solution held within the container. Results of the failure analysis showed that the tank surface...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006782
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... Abstract Corrosion is the deterioration of a material by a reaction of that material with its environment. The realization that corrosion control can be profitable has been acknowledged repeatedly by industry, typically following costly business interruptions. This article describes...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003509
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... weld travel speed Absence of preheat or postheat Low interpass temperature Poor weld profile Poor electrode manipulation Thin weld-bead cross section (particularly in the first pass) Improper fit-up Low weld current Small electrode diameter Improper polarity Improper joint...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006924
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... and oligomers) and, as a result of chemical reactions, polymerize into a network structure ( Ref 1 – 5 ). Figure 1 illustrates the distinction between the processing of thermoplastics and thermosets. In Fig. 1(a) , a thermoplastic polymer may be heated above the glass transition or the melting...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c9001534
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
.... As mentioned earlier, the weld was made with AWS E 6013 electrode, which contains a large amount of cellulose in its coating ( Ref 6 ). At the time of welding, cellulose decomposes into carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, hydrogen, and other gases, as well as large amounts of steam. The chemical reactions...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001820
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... a standard glass cell containing the working electrode (specimen) and a graphite counter electrode. Potentials were measured with reference to a saturated calomel electrode (SCE) interfaced to the test solution via a salt bridge. A potentiostat system was utilized to perform and analyze the potentiodynamic...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006808
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... discontinuities that are detectable by radiography include undercuts, longitudinal grooves, concavity at the weld root, incomplete filling of grooves, excessive penetration, offset or mismatch, burn-through, irregularities at electrode-change points, grinding marks, and electrode spatter. Surface irregularities...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006783
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... (emf) series is a table that lists in order the standard electrode potentials of specified electrochemical reactions. The potentials are measured against a standard reference electrode when the metal is immersed in a solution of its own ions at unit activity ( Table 1 ). Similar to the galvanic series...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.pulp.c9001393
EISBN: 978-1-62708-230-3
... rivet heads. This welding was carried out by means of the metal-arc process, using bare wire electrodes as was the then current practice. So far as was known, this initial welding was confined to those parts of the inner laps of the longitudinal and circumferential shell seams that were located below...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003556
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... of anaerobic bacteria able to reduce nitrate or sulfate (dots in plots) and for soils dominated by the microbial metabolism (boxes). Aerobic bacteria grow over a wide range of pH at E h > 300 mV (normal hydrogen electrode). Source: Ref 19 Whatever the metabolism, electrochemical reactions...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006835
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... segregation Ingot pipe, porosity, and centerline shrinkage High hydrogen content Nonmetallic inclusions Unmelted electrodes and shelf Cracks, laminations, seams, pits, blisters, and scabs Chemical Segregation The elements in a cast alloy are seldom distributed uniformly. Even unalloyed...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003548
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... electrochemical reactions. The potentials are measured against a standard reference electrode when the metal is immersed in a solution of its own ions at unit activity ( Table 1 ). Similar to the galvanic series, it is a list of metals and alloys arranged according to their relative potentials in a given...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006787
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... in corrosion mechanisms that complicate reaction kinetics and explanation of the reactions that occur. The reaction kinetics of high-temperature corrosion reactions are usually classified as linear, parabolic, logarithmic, or cubic ( Ref 1 ). However, high-temperature oxidation and corrosion processes can...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006788
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... photosynthesis and from chemical reactions. The importance of photosynthesis is limited in the context of this article to above-ground facilities and submerged structures that receive sunlight. For covered and closed systems and buried facilities, microbial metabolism depends on energy derived electrochemically...