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electrode potential

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Published: 15 January 2021
Fig. 1 Corrosion characteristics of an active-passive metal as a function of solution oxidizing power (electrode potential) More
Image
Published: 01 January 2002
Fig. 1 Corrosion characteristics of an active-passive metal as a function of solution oxidizing power (electrode potential) More
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006794
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
..., the higher its reactivity ( Ref 21 , 24 ). Formation of localized electrochemical cells, which accelerate corrosion. When two metals in contact having different electrode potentials or activities are in a corrosive environment, the metal that has lower electrode potential (or higher activity) experiences...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001379
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... that 100% magnetic particle inspections are conducted after bolts are tempered; using dull cadmium plate or an alternative to the electrode position process, such as vacuum cadmium plate or ion-plate or ion-plated aluminum, to mitigate the potential for delayed failures due to hydrogen embrittlement...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001065
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... Abstract A 460 mm (18 in.) diam suction line to the main feed water pump for a nuclear power plant failed in a violent, catastrophic manner. Samples of pipe, elbow, and weld materials (ASTM A106 grade B carbon steel, ASTM A234 grade WPB carbon steel, and E7018 carbon steel electrode...
Image
Published: 15 January 2021
Fig. 3 Galvanic series of metals and alloys in seawater. Alloys are listed in order of the potential they exhibit in flowing seawater; those indicated by a black rectangle were tested in low-velocity or poorly aerated water and at shielded areas may become active and exhibit a potential near More
Image
Published: 15 January 2021
Fig. 34 Potential drop obtained when fretting Ti-6Al-4V (IMI 318) titanium alloy in a saline solution. SCE, saturated calomel electrode More
Image
Published: 01 January 2002
Fig. 1 The pH and oxidation reduction potential for growth of anaerobic bacteria able to reduce nitrate or sulfate (dots in plots) and for soils dominated by the microbial metabolism (boxes). Aerobic bacteria grow over a wide range of pH at E h > 300 mV (normal hydrogen electrode More
Image
Published: 15 January 2021
Fig. 39 Superimposed potential-pH diagram of a 70Cu-30Zn alloy in 0.1 M NaCl. Lightly shaded area indicates the domain in which selective removal of zinc is expected in solutions free of copper ions. Intermediate-shaded area indicates the domain in which both copper and zinc dissolve. Dark More
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001820
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... a standard glass cell containing the working electrode (specimen) and a graphite counter electrode. Potentials were measured with reference to a saturated calomel electrode (SCE) interfaced to the test solution via a salt bridge. A potentiostat system was utilized to perform and analyze the potentiodynamic...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001387
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... in the electrolysis is reflected in the voltage indicator lamps. In one such cell, the indicator showed a low potential difference. Dismantling of the cell revealed that the nickel anode was gouged, and in some places a black porous mass was loosely attached to the unattacked nickel. The carbon steel top plate...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006913
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... 2 , g , L are dimensions indicated in Fig. 8 and 9 (see Appendix X2 in Ref 8 for correction to g ); and a , b are lengths of the sides of rectangular electrodes. Source: Ref 8 A test report should include details so that correct engineering decisions can be made and, potentially...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c9001525
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
..., the open circuit potential (OCP) of the sample with respect to the reference electrode is initially measured. The potential is then lowered slightly, making the sample slightly cathodic. The potential is then slowly increased, eventually making the sample anodic, and forcing corrosion and pitting...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.bldgs.c9001171
EISBN: 978-1-62708-219-8
..., the carbon combines with the chromium, which is immediately adjacent to the grain boundaries, and produces a region whose chromium content may also decrease below 12 wt-% (the minimum chromium content so that a steel may be considered a stainless steel). According to this, a potential difference sets up...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006783
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... by a black rectangle were tested in low-velocity or poorly aerated water and at shielded areas may become active and exhibit a potential near −0.5 V. SCE, saturated calomel electrode. Adapted from Ref 2 Although the measurement of potentials has limitations as previously noted, galvanic series based...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.bldgs.c9001702
EISBN: 978-1-62708-219-8
... flowmeter. Half-Cell Potential Survey The bridge beam was wet 30 minutes before potential mapping. Rebar half-cell potential measurements were then taken using the procedure specified in ASTM C 876-87 ( 14 ). A high impedance voltmeter was connected between the rebar and a reference electrode. A Cu...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003548
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... electrode half-cell, such as saturated calomel, as described by the procedure in ASTM G 82 ( Ref 3 ). To prepare a valid galvanic series for a given materials and environment of interest, all the factors affecting the potential must be addressed. This includes material composition, heat treatment, surface...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003549
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... be precisely defined by electrode potential, but is beyond the scope of this discussion. Fig. 1 Corrosion characteristics of an active-passive metal as a function of solution oxidizing power (electrode potential) The behavior of this metal or alloy can be conveniently divided into three regions...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003509
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... itself is a discontinuity and a potential site for initiation of fatigue cracks. Joint design is one of the most critical factors of fatigue behavior, and this article devotes attention to the effects of joint design on weldment integrity. In terms of corrosion, it is also not unusual to find...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001077
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... overhauled 167 h prior to the incident. Pertinent Specifications The spiral bevel gear was manufactured from a “donut-shaped” forging made from consumable electrode vacuum are remelted AMS 6260 steel, which is very similar to AISI 9310 steel. The gear was carburized to provide a case depth of 0.89...