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electrode potential

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001379
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
...: ensuring that 100% magnetic particle inspections are conducted after bolts are tempered; using dull cadmium plate or an alternative to the electrode position process, such as vacuum cadmium plate or ion-plate or ion-plated aluminum, to mitigate the potential for delayed failures due to hydrogen...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001065
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
...Abstract Abstract A 460 mm (18 in.) diam suction line to the main feed water pump for a nuclear power plant failed in a violent, catastrophic manner. Samples of pipe, elbow, and weld materials (ASTM A106 grade B carbon steel, ASTM A234 grade WPB carbon steel, and E7018 carbon steel electrode...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006794
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... 23 ). The lower the electron work function of a metal, the higher its reactivity ( Ref 21 , 24 ). Formation of localized electrochemical cells, which accelerate corrosion. When two metals in contact having different electrode potentials or activities are in a corrosive environment, the metal...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001820
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
.... The test was performed using a standard glass cell containing the working electrode (specimen) and a graphite counter electrode. Potentials were measured with reference to a saturated calomel electrode (SCE) interfaced to the test solution via a salt bridge. A potentiostat system was utilized to perform...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006783
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
...; those indicated by a black rectangle were tested in low-velocity or poorly aerated water and at shielded areas may become active and exhibit a potential near −0.5 V. SCE, saturated calomel electrode. Adapted from Ref 2 Although the measurement of potentials has limitations as previously noted...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003549
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... oxidizing power of the reagents and the concentration of these reagents. Oxidizing power can be precisely defined by electrode potential, but is beyond the scope of this discussion. Fig. 1 Corrosion characteristics of an active-passive metal as a function of solution oxidizing power (electrode...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003548
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... electrode half-cell, such as saturated calomel, as described by the procedure in ASTM G 82 ( Ref 3 ). To prepare a valid galvanic series for a given materials and environment of interest, all the factors affecting the potential must be addressed. This includes material composition, heat treatment, surface...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001387
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... malfunctioning in the electrolysis is reflected in the voltage indicator lamps. In one such cell, the indicator showed a low potential difference. Dismantling of the cell revealed that the nickel anode was gouged, and in some places a black porous mass was loosely attached to the unattacked nickel. The carbon...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.marine.c9001617
EISBN: 978-1-62708-227-3
.... (The NAB couplings are in contact with Cu-Ni piping, so that their electrode potential in seawater is slightly less negative than the open-circuit potential, or E Corr . E Corr for NAB and Cu-Ni is approximately −230 and −195 mV, respectively (not widely dissimilar), and the mixed potential...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.bldgs.c9001171
EISBN: 978-1-62708-219-8
... . The stainless steels, at the passive state act, in fact, in sea water as a noble metal. As can be seen in Table 1 the AISI 304 and 316 potentials, in the passive state, are respectively 0,08 V and 0,05 V negative with respect to saturated calomel electrode. Galvanic series in moving sea water (4 m/sec...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c9001525
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
...-steam dried steel panels. After each sample was evaluated via EIS, it was further evaluated via cyclic polarization testing. In this test, the open circuit potential (OCP) of the sample with respect to the reference electrode is initially measured. The potential is then lowered slightly, making...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006782
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... of these reagents. Oxidizing power can be precisely defined by electrode potential, but that is beyond the scope of this discussion. Fig. 1 Corrosion characteristics of an active-passive metal as a function of solution oxidizing power (electrode potential) The behavior of this metal or alloy can...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.bldgs.c9001702
EISBN: 978-1-62708-219-8
... mapping. Rebar half-cell potential measurements were then taken using the procedure specified in ASTM C 876-87 ( 14 ). A high impedance voltmeter was connected between the rebar and a reference electrode. A Cu/CuSO 4 reference electrode, an electrical junction device (sponge), and electrical contact...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.bldgs.c9001715
EISBN: 978-1-62708-219-8
... to 12) found that, depending on the pH and electrode potential, pitting or crevice corrosion will occur, and the corrosion damage is of a flat-bottomed or layer type. 14 Stress corrosion by dissolution did not occur at the potentials studied (−400 mV to 1000 mV) in the Cherry study (which...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003509
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... itself is a discontinuity and a potential site for initiation of fatigue cracks. Joint design is one of the most critical factors of fatigue behavior, and this article devotes attention to the effects of joint design on weldment integrity. In terms of corrosion, it is also not unusual to find...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001077
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... and had been overhauled 167 h prior to the incident. Pertinent Specifications The spiral bevel gear was manufactured from a “donut-shaped” forging made from consumable electrode vacuum are remelted AMS 6260 steel, which is very similar to AISI 9310 steel. The gear was carburized to provide a case...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001820
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... percentage of the stress-corrosion cracks in line pipe are the carbonate-bicarbonate environment, the pipe surface in the critical potential range for cracking (−0.6 to −0.7 V versus the saturated calomel electrode, SCE, for a carbonate-bicarbonate environment), and the applied tensile stress...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.pulp.c9001393
EISBN: 978-1-62708-230-3
... rivet heads. This welding was carried out by means of the metal-arc process, using bare wire electrodes as was the then current practice. So far as was known, this initial welding was confined to those parts of the inner laps of the longitudinal and circumferential shell seams that were located below...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.bldgs.c9001611
EISBN: 978-1-62708-219-8
.... This article examines a case of cold cracking failure in the construction industry. Fortunately, the failure was identified prior to final erection of the structural members and the weld was successfully reworked. The article explains how various welding parameters, such as electrode/wire selection, joint...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001769
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... with voltamaster-1 software. Mild steel coupon of size 1 cm 2 as working electrode a Saturated Calomel Electrode (SCE) as a reference electrode and a large platinum electrode were employed for polarization study. The system was allowed to attain a steady potential value for 10 min. The steady-state polarization...