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electrode orientation

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Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003509
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... to transverse cracks in that they form in the HAZ but are not open to the surface. In ferritic steels, they also are caused by high hardness, excessive restraint, and the presence of hydrogen. Their orientation follows the contour of the HAZ. Longitudinal cracks (No. 4, Fig. 3 ) may exist in three forms...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c9001534
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... welding using AWS E 6013 flux-coated electrode with a recommended moisture content of less than 1%. Before being placed in operation, the welded pipe was hydrostatically tested at a pressure of 3.2 MPa and was deemed acceptable. No radiographic examination was carried out on the welded component before...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.bldgs.c9001702
EISBN: 978-1-62708-219-8
... orientation) of the beam. All observations and measurements were referenced to this grid. Rebar were located and marked on the beam. Rebar and shear stirrups were tested for continuity within each section of the beam using the AC bridge null method. Isolated rebar and shear stirrups were tied together...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001820
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
.... The test was performed using a standard glass cell containing the working electrode (specimen) and a graphite counter electrode. Potentials were measured with reference to a saturated calomel electrode (SCE) interfaced to the test solution via a salt bridge. A potentiostat system was utilized to perform...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.bldgs.c9001611
EISBN: 978-1-62708-219-8
.... This article examines a case of cold cracking failure in the construction industry. Fortunately, the failure was identified prior to final erection of the structural members and the weld was successfully reworked. The article explains how various welding parameters, such as electrode/wire selection, joint...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c9001707
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
... respectively and then chromium plated. The parts were characterized metallographically and mechanically and were found to be compliant. Detailed fractographic examination revealed that the first stage of both failures was similar: subsurface initiation of numerous cracks with a wide range of orientations...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003507
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
.... The article discusses the types of imperfections that can be traced to the original ingot product. These include chemical segregation; ingot pipe, porosity, and centerline shrinkage; high hydrogen content; nonmetallic inclusions; unmelted electrodes and shelf; and cracks, laminations, seams, pits, blisters...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.bldgs.c9001618
EISBN: 978-1-62708-219-8
... the weld filler metal and the arm. The fusion zone and HAZ did not appear to be embrittled. The orientation of the weld electrode to the arm introduced large amounts of heat and produced residual stresses. The dimension of the bracket opening was excessive, causing a bowing action of the bracket...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001328
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... was attributed to the orientation and morphology of the columnar weld grains, which in this case offered a path of lesser resistance. Root welds showed more equiaxed microstructures as compared to the primarily columnar microstructrue of cover passes. Chemical Analysis/Identification Material and Weld...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006769
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... , 1986 10.1007/978-1-4757-9027-6 5. Adams B.L. , Wright S.I. , and Kunze K. , Orientation Imaging: The Emergence of a New Microscopy , Metall. Trans. A , April 1993 , p 819 – 831 10.1007/BF02656503 6. Goldstein J.I. , Newbury D.E. , Michael J.R...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001536
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
...; no cracks were initially observed in the adjacent wrought piping. The large majority of the cracks extended longitudinally along the axis of the components, with lengths typically about 10 to 15 mm (0.4 to 0.6 in.). This axial crack orientation is unusual; IGSCC cracks typically extend circumferentially...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001818
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... in orientation, measured up to 20 mm (0.75 in.) in length (excluding one very large indication that measured 90 mm, or 3.5 in., in length), and averaged about 6 mm (0.25 in.) in depth. The indications were predominantly located in the thicker wall sections of the cross. The available specimen of the unused...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006783
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
...; those indicated by a black rectangle were tested in low-velocity or poorly aerated water and at shielded areas may become active and exhibit a potential near −0.5 V. SCE, saturated calomel electrode. Adapted from Ref 2 Although the measurement of potentials has limitations as previously noted...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001820
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... the inside or outside pass can be made first, depending on the producer. The weld passes can be made with one to four electrodes. The most common causes of failures in double-submerged arc welds are weld cracks, toe cracks, and lack of penetration. Cracks may appear in either the weld metal or the heat...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006770
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
.... Courtesy of Olympus Corporation Essentially, for any type of sample that can be viewed using an SEM, an x-ray signal can be obtained assuming proper orientation of the sample and operation of the SEM. When qualitative information is desired, as is the case in the majority of failure analysis...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001304
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... path near the intake end of the diffuser cone was either random or irregular ( Fig. 2 ). The random orientation of the fracture path suggested that failure was not associated with any specific metallurgical mechanism or phenomenon. Although the zigzag fracture path in the diffuser cone appeared...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.bldgs.c9001715
EISBN: 978-1-62708-219-8
... to 12) found that, depending on the pH and electrode potential, pitting or crevice corrosion will occur, and the corrosion damage is of a flat-bottomed or layer type. 14 Stress corrosion by dissolution did not occur at the potentials studied (−400 mV to 1000 mV) in the Cherry study (which...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003548
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... electrode half-cell, such as saturated calomel, as described by the procedure in ASTM G 82 ( Ref 3 ). To prepare a valid galvanic series for a given materials and environment of interest, all the factors affecting the potential must be addressed. This includes material composition, heat treatment, surface...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003543
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
..., specifically oriented grains tend to crack, leaving a shiny, faceted appearance easily differentiated from dull and fibrous, dimple-rupture features. Cleavage in a steel sample is shown in Fig. 4 . Face-centered-cubic (fcc) metals (for example, copper, aluminum, nickel, and austenitic steels) exhibit...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001817
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... at the longitudinal seam weld (region A) and propagated circumferentially along the HAZ of the circumferential weld (region B). Fatigue beach marks are present along edges (at center). The fracture surfaces are oriented to show the inner surface of the bellows (top) and the outer surface (bottom). 2× Fig. 5...