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electrode extension

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.bldgs.c9001611
EISBN: 978-1-62708-219-8
...Abstract Abstract Cold cracking of structural steel weldments is a well-documented failure mechanism, and extensive work has been done to recognize welding and materials selection parameters associated with it. These efforts, however, have not fully eliminated the occurrence of such failures...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c0048814
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... by the submerged arc process with a backing strip. The backing was back gouged off, and the weld was completed from the inside with E8018-C3 electrodes by the shielded metal arc process. Striations of the type normally associated with progressive or fatigue-type failures including beach marks that allowed tracing...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c9001560
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
... cracking may have occurred. A study was made for stress-corrosion cracking susceptibility of 4340 steel in a paste made of the residues collected from used breech chambers. The constant extension rate test (CERT) technique was employed and SCC susceptibility was demonstrated. The residues, which contained...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003509
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... weld travel speed Absence of preheat or postheat Low interpass temperature Poor weld profile Poor electrode manipulation Thin weld-bead cross section (particularly in the first pass) Improper fit-up Low weld current Small electrode diameter Improper polarity Improper joint...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.auto.c9001514
EISBN: 978-1-62708-218-1
... sill also had separated. This separation is shown in Figure 7 of the underside of the car. The same separation was visible from the interior of the vehicle. Fig. 7 Separation of upper sill (arrow) viewed from under car with rocker panel cut away Using electrode indentations as a guide...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c0048840
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... of small cracks at the root of the weld. The cleavage mode of fracture was confirmed by SEM. The presence of extensive secondary cracking and twinning (Neumann bands) where the fracture followed the line of the shroud-support ring was revealed by metallography. It was revealed by refinery maintenance...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c0046044
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
...Abstract Abstract A rocket-motor case made of consumable-electrode vacuum arc remelted D-6ac alloy steel failed during hydrostatic proof-pressure testing. Close visual examination, magnetic-particle inspection, and hardness tests showed cracks that appeared to have occurred after austenitizing...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c9001507
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
... outboard engine causing its propeller to also separate. In order to substantiate this conclusion, the physical evidence of the separated propellers was required. Extensive aerial survey and ground searches of target areas based on trajectory analysis were carried out, but the missing propellers and most...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.petrol.c9001550
EISBN: 978-1-62708-228-0
...Abstract Abstract A 100,000 barrel crude oil storage tank rupture caused extensive property damage in Dec 1980, in Moose Jaw, Saskatchewan. Failure was attributed to a brittle fracture that originated at a weld between a reinforcing pad and a manway nozzle. Factors that contributed...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001820
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... (CTR), and extension transverse crack (ETC), which is the maximum crack thickness. (Eq 1) CSR = ∑ a ⋅ b = w ⋅ t ⋅ 100 , (Eq 2) CLR = ∑ a / w ⋅ 100 , (Eq 3) CTR = ∑ b / w ⋅ 100 . Sulfide stress corrosion cracking (SSCC...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c9001534
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... welding using AWS E 6013 flux-coated electrode with a recommended moisture content of less than 1%. Before being placed in operation, the welded pipe was hydrostatically tested at a pressure of 3.2 MPa and was deemed acceptable. No radiographic examination was carried out on the welded component before...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.pulp.c9001393
EISBN: 978-1-62708-230-3
... rivet heads. This welding was carried out by means of the metal-arc process, using bare wire electrodes as was the then current practice. So far as was known, this initial welding was confined to those parts of the inner laps of the longitudinal and circumferential shell seams that were located below...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.bldgs.c9001702
EISBN: 978-1-62708-219-8
... mapping. Rebar half-cell potential measurements were then taken using the procedure specified in ASTM C 876-87 ( 14 ). A high impedance voltmeter was connected between the rebar and a reference electrode. A Cu/CuSO 4 reference electrode, an electrical junction device (sponge), and electrical contact...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006769
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... magnification: 39×. (b) The well-defined striations resulted from the planar slip characteristic of stainless steels. Original magnification: 810× Fig. 15 Fatigue fracture in 18% Ni, grade 250 maraging steel tested at room temperature. (a) Extensive secondary cracking can be seen in a lower...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003549
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... oxidizing power of the reagents and the concentration of these reagents. Oxidizing power can be precisely defined by electrode potential, but is beyond the scope of this discussion. Fig. 1 Corrosion characteristics of an active-passive metal as a function of solution oxidizing power (electrode...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001769
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... ]. The primary role of bacteria in the precipitation process was ascribed to their ability to create an alkaline environment (high pH) through various physiological activities [ 12 , 13 ]. Although microbiological calcium precipitation has been investigated extensively both in natural environments and under...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.bldgs.c9001618
EISBN: 978-1-62708-219-8
.... 4 Sketch of crack locations on arm #98 Fig. 5 Interior view of cracks on arm #93 (thick arm) SEM analysis of the first bend (located at 45° clockwise from the seam weld) showed extensive ductile tearing, with very limited brittle fracture surfaces. These are shown in Fig. 6...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006783
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
...; those indicated by a black rectangle were tested in low-velocity or poorly aerated water and at shielded areas may become active and exhibit a potential near −0.5 V. SCE, saturated calomel electrode. Adapted from Ref 2 Although the measurement of potentials has limitations as previously noted...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001802
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... loading to failure. Fatigue testing was conducted in rotating bending with a stress ratio (minimum stress divided by maximum stress) equal to −1. As-drawn NiTi wire was also cathodically charged at −1 V with respect to a graphite electrode for 24 h in an H 2 SO 4 , pH = 1 solution with arsenic...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001328
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
.... Both pipe and weld heat-affected zone (HAZ) microstructures showed extensive grain boundary precipitation, in addition to stringers and fine matrix precipitates ( Fig. 3 ). Grain boundary carbide morphology was noted as both globular and “film-like”. Matrix precipitates were often seen as long carbide...