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electrochemical reactions

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006783
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... Abstract Corrosion is the electrochemical reaction of a material and its environment. This article addresses those forms of corrosion that contribute directly to the failure of metal parts or that render them susceptible to failure by some other mechanism. Various forms of corrosion covered...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006782
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
..., the metal would spontaneously become electrically charged, which is impossible. The corrosion of zinc in hydrochloric acid is an electrochemical process. That is, any reaction that can be divided into two or more partial reactions of oxidation and reduction due to the transfer of electrical charge is termed...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003549
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... maintenance. corrosion corrosion failure analysis corrosion monitoring electrochemical corrosion galvanic protection inhibitors metallic coatings nonmetallic coatings preventive maintenance surface treatments thermal spray CORROSION is the deterioration of a material by a reaction...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006794
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... surface or by abrasive particles (rolling or grooving) in corrosive environments. For example, during wet milling, a metal surface is abraded by abrasives involving simultaneous electrochemical reactions in an aqueous solution. Other examples of abrasion-corrosion include mining shearers working in wet...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003556
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... of anaerobic bacteria able to reduce nitrate or sulfate (dots in plots) and for soils dominated by the microbial metabolism (boxes). Aerobic bacteria grow over a wide range of pH at E h > 300 mV (normal hydrogen electrode). Source: Ref 19 Whatever the metabolism, electrochemical reactions...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.marine.c9001673
EISBN: 978-1-62708-227-3
... Aqueous NaCl Solution,” J. Electrochem. , Vol. 127 , pp. 1890 – 1896 ( September 1980 ). 10.1149/1.2130031 10. Blundy R. G. and Pryor M. J. , “The Potential Dependence of Reaction Product Composition on Copper-Nickel Alloys,” Corr. Sci. , Vol. 12 , pp. 65 – 75 ( 1972...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001820
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... “A” was used in electrochemical tests. After pouring the solution and sealing the cell, the cell was deaerated by argon for 1 h to eliminate any oxygen interference with the electrochemical reaction. After purging, H2S was bubbled into the cell at a flow rate of 55 cc/min for 30 min before starting the test...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001834
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... for electrochemical reaction with molten salt at high temperatures. Such salts include alkali iron trisulfates, which are important corrosive species with their lowest melting point at 550 °C [ 18 ]. When a deposit forms on outer surfaces, corrosion rate increases with increasing thickness of the deposit...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003548
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... denickelification desiliconification dezincification galvanic corrosion graphitic corrosion intergranular corrosion pitting corrosion selective leaching uniform corrosion velocity-affected corrosion CORROSION is the electrochemical reaction of a material and its environment. This article addresses...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006788
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... photosynthesis and from chemical reactions. The importance of photosynthesis is limited in the context of this article to above-ground facilities and submerged structures that receive sunlight. For covered and closed systems and buried facilities, microbial metabolism depends on energy derived electrochemically...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003551
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... phenomena all come into play). Basic Principles It is generally accepted that corrosion of refractories and ceramics are the result of some specific chemical reactions rather than electrochemical reactions. It is then appropriate to estimate first the driving force or the propensity of a given...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c9001525
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
..., suggesting that the corrosion debris contained potassium hydroxide. This substance, which is somewhat corrosive to carbon steel under certain conditions, likely formed as a reaction product from the alkaline solution held within the container. Results of the failure analysis showed that the tank surface...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003555
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... and metal dusting, sulfidation, hot corrosion, chloridation, hydrogen interactions, molten metals, molten salts, and aging reactions including sensitization, stress-corrosion cracking, and corrosion fatigue. It concludes with a discussion on various protective coatings, such as aluminide coatings, overlay...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001695
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... is reaction with water to form hydrogen and aluminum hydroxide which has very low solubility in water and precipitates into Bayerite or Boehmite, depending on the temperature of the water. (Eq 1) 2 Al + 6 H 2 O → 2 Al ( OH ) 3 + 3 H 2 In the electrochemical reaction...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006787
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... with the identification of the mode of degradation, whether it is mechanical, chemical, electrochemical, or a combination of several factors. The failure analysis can be complex, because more than one failure mechanism could be operative. The education and experience of the failure analyst augments the failure...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006827
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... in a particular application ( Ref 26 ). The mechanism of IMC nucleation and growth is the chemical reaction of the different elements in the solder alloy or between the solder alloy and soldering base metal, for example, copper on the copper pads or nickel on the ENIG finishing. This chemical reaction...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001486
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... cathode. It is also thought that vibration increases the access of oxygen to the corroded surface, this being utilized in the cathode reaction to reduce the polarising action of hydrogen. Damage to other portions of liners, that which is seen in the piston ring grooves, under flanges...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.bldgs.c9001702
EISBN: 978-1-62708-219-8
..., aggregate reactions, surface air permeability, and a microbial survey. Beam Condition Survey Visual observations showed a thin layer of cementitious material partially delaminating from the outer surface of the beam. This layer contained the linseed oil applied in 1969. It was removed by sand...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006920
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... hydroperoxides resulting in two macroradicals Fig. 5 Schematic photooxidation or autooxidation cycle Fig. 6 Photooxidation schemes. (a) Norrish type I reactions form carboxylic acids and esters. (b) Norrish type II reactions lead to scission of a polymer chain into two parts; a chain-end...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001561
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... of weld metal/base materials Constant Extension Rate Testing (CERT) Electrochemical Potentiokinetic Reactivation Analyses (EPR) Examinations Visual/Photography Preliminary visual examination of the pipe disclosed that the crack (near SF 265) was adjacent to what appeared to be a weld...