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electrochemical precipitation

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.bldgs.c9001171
EISBN: 978-1-62708-219-8
... Abstract The defects observed along weldings of stainless steel pipelines employed in marine environments were evidenced by metallographic and electrochemical examination. A compilation of cases on the effect of defective weldings, in addition to improper choice of stainless steel for water...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001571
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... Abstract The accident at Three Mile Island Unit No. 2 on 28 March 1979 was the worst nuclear accident in US history. By Jan 1990, it was possible to electrochemically machine coupons from the lower head using a specially designed tool. The specimens contained the ER308L stainless steel cladding...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001769
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... –ve  Mannitol –ve +ve +ve +ve CPB, calcium precipitating bacteria; CPB1, Serratia sp.; CPB2, Enterobacter sp.; CPB3, Enterobacter sp.; CPB4, Enterococcus sp. Impedance data for the calcium precipitating bacteria in cooling water system Table 4 Impedance data...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.marine.c9001673
EISBN: 978-1-62708-227-3
... in nucleated crystals and some greenish precipitates within them. Figures 2c and d show a distinct boundary between crystals and the underlying alloys. There is also evidence of colinearity of some alloy grain boundaries or the twin boundaries in the alloy with the twins in the crystals. Fig. 2...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003540
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... alterations. Grain boundaries are thus the preferential region for congregation and segregation of impurities. Weakening or embrittlement can also occur by preferential phase precipitation or absorption of environmental species in the grain boundaries. In addition, the grain-boundary regions are also weakened...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006777
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... cracking steam generator tubes INTERGRANULAR FRACTURE is decohesion that occurs along a grain boundary. Intergranular fracture is often associated with the presence of an embrittlement mechanism or the presence of precipitates and segregates at the grain boundary, which make the grain boundary...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003548
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... denickelification desiliconification dezincification galvanic corrosion graphitic corrosion intergranular corrosion pitting corrosion selective leaching uniform corrosion velocity-affected corrosion CORROSION is the electrochemical reaction of a material and its environment. This article addresses...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006783
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... Abstract Corrosion is the electrochemical reaction of a material and its environment. This article addresses those forms of corrosion that contribute directly to the failure of metal parts or that render them susceptible to failure by some other mechanism. Various forms of corrosion covered...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001770
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... are in bold Fig. 6 SE micrographs showing ( a ) transgranular cracking, ( b ) transgranular cracks along carbide precipitates, ( c ) Cr-carbide precipitation at grain boundaries and slip planes, ( d ) carbides at grain and twin boundaries, and ( e ) EDS results of Cr carbides Fig. 4...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001561
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... of weld metal/base materials Constant Extension Rate Testing (CERT) Electrochemical Potentiokinetic Reactivation Analyses (EPR) Examinations Visual/Photography Preliminary visual examination of the pipe disclosed that the crack (near SF 265) was adjacent to what appeared to be a weld...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001486
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... may break down under conditions of cavitation; organic compounds, for instance, may be degraded and lead to precipitation. Cavitation damage tends to fall off as the temperature is raised and, in one case, damage which was shown to be at a maximum at 50°C diminished significantly at 80°C. Raising...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003549
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... Abstract This article provides an overview of the electrochemical nature of corrosion and analyzes corrosion-related failures. It describes corrosion failure analysis and discusses corrective and preventive approaches to mitigate corrosion-related failures of metals. These include: change...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006787
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... with the identification of the mode of degradation, whether it is mechanical, chemical, electrochemical, or a combination of several factors. The failure analysis can be complex, because more than one failure mechanism could be operative. The education and experience of the failure analyst augments the failure...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003555
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... on this analysis, corrective action to mitigate or eliminate future failures can be initiated. Analysis of the failure generally requires the identification of the mode of degradation, whether it is mechanical, chemical, electrochemical, or a combination of several factors. This failure analysis can be complex...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003552
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... Abstract This article provides an overview of the classification of hydrogen damage. Some specific types of the damage are hydrogen embrittlement, hydrogen-induced blistering, cracking from precipitation of internal hydrogen, hydrogen attack, and cracking from hydride formation. The article...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c9001395
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... to 550–700°C. At this temperature, chromium carbides can be precipitated at the grain boundaries, depleting the surrounding matrix of chromium as explained earlier. This leads to a local difference in electrochemical potential and corrosion can take place along the grain-boundaries to dislodge the grains...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006784
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... in many metals and is readily available during the production, processing, and service of metals from operations such as: Refining (precipitates upon solidification from supersaturated concentrations) Acid cleaning (pickling) Electroplating Contact with water or other hydrogen-containing...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.petrol.c9001235
EISBN: 978-1-62708-228-0
... it occurs in aqueous solution according to an electrochemical process described by F. K. Naumann and W. Carius 1 and forms iron sulfide and hydrogen. The hydrogen penetrates the steel and precipitates molecularly at weak points such as inclusions, grain- and phase boundaries at a pressure corresponding...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006794
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... surface or by abrasive particles (rolling or grooving) in corrosive environments. For example, during wet milling, a metal surface is abraded by abrasives involving simultaneous electrochemical reactions in an aqueous solution. Other examples of abrasion-corrosion include mining shearers working in wet...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003556
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... of anaerobic bacteria able to reduce nitrate or sulfate (dots in plots) and for soils dominated by the microbial metabolism (boxes). Aerobic bacteria grow over a wide range of pH at E h > 300 mV (normal hydrogen electrode). Source: Ref 19 Whatever the metabolism, electrochemical reactions...