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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.usage.c9001539
EISBN: 978-1-62708-236-5
... grinding on high-strength steel; chromium should be stripped by electrochemical methods. Bolts Chromium plating Grinding cracks 4340 UNS G43400 Intergranular fracture During an overhaul, mechanics discovered a crack in a pivot bolt when they ground off the chromium plating. Investigation...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006782
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... the electrochemical nature of corrosion and provides the typical analysis of environmental- and corrosion-related failures. It presents common methods of testing of laboratory corrosion and discusses the processes involved in the prevention of environmental- and corrosion-related failures of metals and nonmetals...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003549
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
..., and electrochemical tests. Typically, a variety of materials are selected for evaluation. A standard, such as carbon steel, may be used to verify the corrosiveness of the environment. Multiple samples of the same material should be tested to verify reproducibility. Sources for corrosion test methods are ASTM...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001004
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... of grain boundary phosphorus segregation exhibited a good relationship with ambient temperature Charpy data. The electrochemical polarization kinetic reactivation, EPR, approach, however, proved disappointing in that the overlapping scatter in the minimum current density, Ir, for an embrittled and a non...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006794
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... for corrosive wear. Next, the article explains testing methods and characterization of corrosive wear. Various factors that influence corrosive wear are then covered. The article concludes with general guidelines for material selection against corrosive wear. corrosion corrosive wear material selection...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001820
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... Fig. 8 Hydrogen induced microcracks emanated from ( a ) elongated FeS, ( b ) acicular MnS inclusion in A216 steel Fig. 10 Surface of fractured steels, after corrosion testing according to NACE TM 0177-96 method “A” standard in 5.0% NaCl + 0.5% CH 3 COOH at T = 23 °C and pH 3.5...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003567
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... are crushed annually ( Ref 5 ). Wear debris and corrosion products that are formed during comminution affect product quality and can adversely affect subsequent beneficiation by altering the chemical and electrochemical properties of the mineral system ( Ref 4 , 7 , 8 , 9 ). Electrochemical...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003556
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... of anaerobic bacteria able to reduce nitrate or sulfate (dots in plots) and for soils dominated by the microbial metabolism (boxes). Aerobic bacteria grow over a wide range of pH at E h > 300 mV (normal hydrogen electrode). Source: Ref 19 Whatever the metabolism, electrochemical reactions...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006783
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... protecting the less active metal from corrosion. It is a common and economical method of corrosion protection. A second definition is the application of an external “impressed” electrical current into the metal that is to be protected so its electrical “status” is moved to the electrochemically passive...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003548
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
.... Although time consuming, this is the most desirable method of investigating galvanic corrosion. In design and materials selection, screening tests are conducted to eliminate as many candidate materials as possible. These screening tests consist of one or more of the following electrochemical techniques...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001561
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... of weld metal/base materials Constant Extension Rate Testing (CERT) Electrochemical Potentiokinetic Reactivation Analyses (EPR) Examinations Visual/Photography Preliminary visual examination of the pipe disclosed that the crack (near SF 265) was adjacent to what appeared to be a weld...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c9001525
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... then evaluated for polarization resistance and corrosion rate when immersed in the mildly alkaline product that is stored in the tanks. The tanks were all studied at ambient temperature. Electrochemical Impedance Electrochemical corrosion test cells were assembled to expose the surface of each panel...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001486
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
..., attention being given to methods of reducing the amplitude of the liner vibration. Attempts have been made to reduce the severity of attack by attention to the environment. Inhibitors, such as chromates, benzoate/nitrite mixtures, and emulsified oils, have been tried with varying success. Attempts have been...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006827
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... are also presented. The article introduces several frequently used methods for solder joint failure detection, prevention, and isolation (identification for the failed location). failure analysis solder alloys solder joints soldering SOLDERS OR SOLDER ALLOYS are well-known metal-based...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006788
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... microorganisms can be involved in corrosion scenarios. This is a rapidly evolving area. The introduction of new, cost-effective methods for the analysis of trace genetic material in the form of DNA and RNA molecules extracted from field samples made it possible, in principle, to identify all the organisms...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001779
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... , mg/l NH 3 , mg/l O 2 , mg/l Feed water 0.52 1.3 9 5< 18.7 808 5 Prescribed water 0.3 Max 0.7 Max 9 ± 1 5 Max 15 800 20 Electrochemical data Table 6 Electrochemical data I Corr , μA Corrosion rate, mpy Distilled water 6.237 2.859 Feed water...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006914
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... Transform Infrared spectroscopy, or electrochemical sensors for specific species (e.g., CO), or the effects of gaseous combustion products on laboratory animals can be studied ( Ref 10 ). ASTM E662, “Standard Test Method for Specific Optical Density of Smoke Generated by Solid Materials,” is the most...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.bldgs.c9001171
EISBN: 978-1-62708-219-8
... Abstract The defects observed along weldings of stainless steel pipelines employed in marine environments were evidenced by metallographic and electrochemical examination. A compilation of cases on the effect of defective weldings, in addition to improper choice of stainless steel for water...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001803
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... of implant materials generally requires advanced casting and/or continuous forging processes. The implants are coated for better wear, with osseointegration plasma spray, sol-gel dipping, electrochemical, electrophoretic, and sputtering methods commonly used as surface treatments. [ 4 – 13 ] The full success...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c9001731
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
...-corrosion. Because of the serious nature of the failures and because the mechanism of the fracture initiation is not well understood, unusually complete laboratory investigations have been conducted. Three of these investigations are reviewed to illustrate the methods used in studying failures in aircraft...