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electrochemical metal migration

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006827
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... history ( Ref 13 ). Fig. 22 Typical pad cratering caused by impact. (a) Cross-sectional view. (b) Top view (pad side) Electrochemical Migration Electrochemical migration (ECM) phenomenon is the dissolution and movement of metal ions in the presence of an electric potential, which results...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.bldgs.c9001171
EISBN: 978-1-62708-219-8
... Abstract The defects observed along weldings of stainless steel pipelines employed in marine environments were evidenced by metallographic and electrochemical examination. A compilation of cases on the effect of defective weldings, in addition to improper choice of stainless steel for water...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003556
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... Abstract This article focuses on the mechanisms of microbially induced or influenced corrosion (MIC) of metallic materials as an introduction to the recognition, management, and prevention of microbiological corrosion failures in piping, tanks, heat exchangers, and cooling towers. It discusses...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006782
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... the electrochemical nature of corrosion and provides the typical analysis of environmental- and corrosion-related failures. It presents common methods of testing of laboratory corrosion and discusses the processes involved in the prevention of environmental- and corrosion-related failures of metals and nonmetals...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006783
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... Abstract Corrosion is the electrochemical reaction of a material and its environment. This article addresses those forms of corrosion that contribute directly to the failure of metal parts or that render them susceptible to failure by some other mechanism. Various forms of corrosion covered...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003548
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... what inspection and maintenance action, if any, should be taken. All corrosion reactions are electrochemical in nature and depend on the operation of electrochemical cells at the metal surface. This mechanism is discussed in the first section, “Galvanic Corrosion.” Galvanic corrosion applies even...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003552
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... of the metal and enhances crack propagation. This theory may explain the crack propagation of high-strength steels in low-pressure gaseous hydrogen. The decohesion theory ( Ref 2 ) holds that dissolved hydrogen tends to migrate toward regions of hydrostatic (often termed as triaxial) tensile stress and weakens...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006784
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
.... The decohesion theory ( Ref 2 ) holds that dissolved hydrogen tends to migrate toward regions of hydrostatic (often termed as triaxial) tensile stress and weakens the material by lowering the bond strength between metal atoms. This theory is the one that is most applicable to the type of hydrogen embrittlement...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003555
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... and metal dusting, sulfidation, hot corrosion, chloridation, hydrogen interactions, molten metals, molten salts, and aging reactions including sensitization, stress-corrosion cracking, and corrosion fatigue. It concludes with a discussion on various protective coatings, such as aluminide coatings, overlay...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.bldgs.c9001702
EISBN: 978-1-62708-219-8
... opportunity is to apply remediation techniques currently in use commercially, but still, in some respects, in the development stage. Cathodic protection is the process that is used most often to extend the life of older existing bridges. Thermal-spray metal anodes, particularly thermal-spray zinc...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006787
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... oxidation, carburization, metal dusting, nitridation, carbonitridation, sulfidation, and chloridation. Several other potential degradation processes, namely hot corrosion, hydrogen interactions, molten salts, aging, molten sand, erosion-corrosion, and environmental cracking, are discussed under boiler tube...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001808
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... and/or growth can initiate corrosion. Additionally, the biofilm can cultivate an electrochemical corrosion cell that can lead to localized or general corrosion. The material under the biofilm or deposit is generally the anode while the surrounding area is the cathode. Furthermore, if chloride ions are present...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006811
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... is their degradation after long-term exposure to the physiological environment ( Ref 22 ). This degradation can occur either by wear, electrochemical dissolution of the metal, or both, resulting in the release of metal ions and decreasing the mechanical integrity of the component ( Ref 23 , 24 ). With several...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006813
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
..., include ( Ref 1 ): Uniform corrosion: A consequence of chemical and/or electrochemical interactions between the metal and the fluid in contact with it over the entire exposed metal surface. It occurs when the metal, fluid, and operating variables are homogeneous. Galvanic corrosion: Caused...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003551
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
..., “Basic Principles,” covers fundamental aspects of chemical corrosion (as opposed to electrochemical corrosion). The second section is a compilation of corrosion resistance characteristics of specific classes of refractories and structural ceramics, and the third section is devoted to the prevention...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003534
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... to modify the chemical makeup of the material being probed. It has been greatly used for studying such things as the depth of modification of plasma- and corona-treated polymers, the oxidation of metals and semiconductors, polymer-metal adhesion, additive surface migration, and the lubrication of various...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001818
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
.... The piping system was completely surveyed to ensure that only the specified metal was used. Replacements were made when the wrong metal was found. Fig. 1 A specimen from a low-carbon steel nipple showing fissuring at grain boundaries (top) caused by hydrogen attack. 80× A common experience...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006920
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... the connection between chemical and physical aging of polymers. The detection of weathering degradation using analytical methods such as Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, electrochemical impedance, or ultraviolet/visible spectroscopy has the potential to decrease material and product development...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.9781627083294
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006808
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... or rejection in new construction inspection are also discussed. The article discusses the types of base metal cracks and metallurgical weld cracking. The article discusses the processes involved in the analysis of in-service weld failures. It briefly reviews the general types of process-related discontinuities...