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electrochemical metal migration

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.bldgs.c9001171
EISBN: 978-1-62708-219-8
... Abstract The defects observed along weldings of stainless steel pipelines employed in marine environments were evidenced by metallographic and electrochemical examination. A compilation of cases on the effect of defective weldings, in addition to improper choice of stainless steel for water...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.bldgs.c9001702
EISBN: 978-1-62708-219-8
... CORROSION/97 , paper No.233, New Orleans, LA , March 9–14, 1997 . 10. Bullard S.J. , Covino B.S. Jr , Holcomb G.R. , Cramer S.D. , and McGill G.E. , “Bond Strength of Thermal-Sprayed Zinc on Concrete During Early Electrochemical Aging,” NACE International CORROSION/97...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006782
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... the electrochemical nature of corrosion and provides the typical analysis of environmental- and corrosion-related failures. It presents common methods of testing of laboratory corrosion and discusses the processes involved in the prevention of environmental- and corrosion-related failures of metals and nonmetals...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003552
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... the crack propagation of high-strength steels in low-pressure gaseous hydrogen. The decohesion theory ( Ref 2 ) holds that dissolved hydrogen tends to migrate toward regions of hydrostatic (often termed as triaxial) tensile stress and weakens the material by lowering the bond strength between metal atoms...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006784
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... the time to failure. When hydrogen embrittlement is the cracking mechanism, a cathodic current accelerates cracking. Electrochemical methods are also used to determine whether hydrogen can be charged into metal in given solutions. For example, consider the type 431 stainless steel mushroom-head closure...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003556
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... theoretically be involved as the electron acceptor, X , in the corrosion of metals ( Eq 1 ) but evidence for direct MIC based on other electron acceptors is limited. A more general discussion of possible links between electrochemical reactions mediated in microbial metabolism and corrosion is provided in Ref...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001808
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... in types 304/304L/E308 stainless steel base metal/welds , CORROSION/1999 , Paper no. 159. NACE , Houston, TX ( 1999 ) 10.1109/58.753033 . 5. Borenstein S.W. , Lindsay P.B. : MIC failures of 304L stainless steel piping left stagnant after hydrotesting . Mater. Perform. 70 – 73...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006783
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... Abstract Corrosion is the electrochemical reaction of a material and its environment. This article addresses those forms of corrosion that contribute directly to the failure of metal parts or that render them susceptible to failure by some other mechanism. Various forms of corrosion covered...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003548
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... what inspection and maintenance action, if any, should be taken. All corrosion reactions are electrochemical in nature and depend on the operation of electrochemical cells at the metal surface. This mechanism is discussed in the first section, “Galvanic Corrosion.” Galvanic corrosion applies even...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003555
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... and metal dusting, sulfidation, hot corrosion, chloridation, hydrogen interactions, molten metals, molten salts, and aging reactions including sensitization, stress-corrosion cracking, and corrosion fatigue. It concludes with a discussion on various protective coatings, such as aluminide coatings, overlay...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006787
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... oxidation, carburization, metal dusting, nitridation, carbonitridation, sulfidation, and chloridation. Several other potential degradation processes, namely hot corrosion, hydrogen interactions, molten salts, aging, molten sand, erosion-corrosion, and environmental cracking, are discussed under boiler tube...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003551
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
..., “Basic Principles,” covers fundamental aspects of chemical corrosion (as opposed to electrochemical corrosion). The second section is a compilation of corrosion resistance characteristics of specific classes of refractories and structural ceramics, and the third section is devoted to the prevention...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003534
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... being probed. It has been greatly used for studying such things as the depth of modification of plasma- and corona-treated polymers, the oxidation of metals and semiconductors, polymer-metal adhesion, additive surface migration, and the lubrication of various materials. Many newer-generation XPS...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001818
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... to hydrogen at high pressures and temperatures. The piping system was completely surveyed to ensure that only the specified metal was used. Replacements were made when the wrong metal was found. Fig. 1 A specimen from a low-carbon steel nipple showing fissuring at grain boundaries (top) caused...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003510
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... slot, is illustrated in Fig. 29 ( Ref 23 ). In this case, nonuniform heat transfer results. The metal within the notch is affected by the shrinkage of the metal around it, due to slower cooling within the slot caused by vaporization of the quenchant. Therefore, on cooling, the metal on the side...