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electrochemical cell

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001820
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... polarization curves. NACE TM0177 test solution “A” was used in electrochemical tests. After pouring the solution and sealing the cell, the cell was deaerated by argon for 1 h to eliminate any oxygen interference with the electrochemical reaction. After purging, H2S was bubbled into the cell at a flow rate...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003556
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... or kinetics of the rate-controlling reaction or process. They can be directly involved in the electron transfer processes in the electrochemical cell represented by Eq 1 or be less directly involved through a number of mechanisms, including depolarization of the anode or cathode, disruption of passivating...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c9001560
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
.... Electrochemical Testing Investigation into the electrochemical behavior of AISI 4340 steel in the residue paste was conducted using potentiodynamic polarization and linear polarization techniques. A standard three electrode cell was used with the steel as the working electrode, a saturated calomel electrode...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c9001525
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... then evaluated for polarization resistance and corrosion rate when immersed in the mildly alkaline product that is stored in the tanks. The tanks were all studied at ambient temperature. Electrochemical Impedance Electrochemical corrosion test cells were assembled to expose the surface of each panel...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006788
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... of protons ) (Eq 3) 2H 2 O + 2 e − → H 2 + 2OH − ( reduction of water ) (Eq 4) 4H + + O 2 + 4 e − → 2H 2 O ( reduction of oxygen ) An electrochemical corrosion cell is made up of an anodic and a cathodic reaction (e.g., Eq 1 and 2...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003567
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... in Grinding In the study of high-carbon low-alloy steel grinding media, localized electrochemical cells existed between strained and unstrained regions of the alloy ( Ref 27 ). This resulted in preferential anodic dissolution in microgrooves, which promoted pitting. The overall corrosive wear rates...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006794
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
..., the higher its reactivity ( Ref 21 , 24 ). Formation of localized electrochemical cells, which accelerate corrosion. When two metals in contact having different electrode potentials or activities are in a corrosive environment, the metal that has lower electrode potential (or higher activity) experiences...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006783
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... action, if any, should be taken. All corrosion reactions are electrochemical in nature and depend on the operation of electrochemical cells at the metal surface. This mechanism is discussed in the first section, “Galvanic Corrosion,” in this article. Galvanic corrosion applies even to generalized...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003548
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... what inspection and maintenance action, if any, should be taken. All corrosion reactions are electrochemical in nature and depend on the operation of electrochemical cells at the metal surface. This mechanism is discussed in the first section, “Galvanic Corrosion.” Galvanic corrosion applies even...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001486
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
..., there are aspects that lend support to the corrosion hypothesis. It is considered that the impact forces may only serve to remove the protective oxide film normally present on the surface, and that the hare regions thus produced become anodic to the remainder and local corrosion cells are set up, the anodic regions...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003549
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... Abstract This article provides an overview of the electrochemical nature of corrosion and analyzes corrosion-related failures. It describes corrosion failure analysis and discusses corrective and preventive approaches to mitigate corrosion-related failures of metals. These include: change...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.bldgs.c9001702
EISBN: 978-1-62708-219-8
..., Absorption, and Voids in Hardened Concrete,” 14. ASTM C 876-87, “Standard Test Method for Half-Cell Potentials of Uncoated Reinforcing Steel in Concrete,” 15. Flis J. , Sabol S. , Pickering H.W. , Sehgal A. , Osseo-Asare K. , and Cady P.D. , “Electrochemical...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.bldgs.c9001171
EISBN: 978-1-62708-219-8
... Abstract The defects observed along weldings of stainless steel pipelines employed in marine environments were evidenced by metallographic and electrochemical examination. A compilation of cases on the effect of defective weldings, in addition to improper choice of stainless steel for water...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001803
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... forging processes. The implants are coated for better wear, with osseointegration plasma spray, sol-gel dipping, electrochemical, electrophoretic, and sputtering methods commonly used as surface treatments. [ 4 – 13 ] The full success of an implant depends on various factors, such as proper indication...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001769
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... exchanger tubes taken out of service at a gas turbine power station. The corrosive effect of each type of bacteria on mild steel was investigated using electrochemical (polarization and impedance) techniques, and the biogenic calcium scale formations analyzed by XRD. It was shown that the bacteria...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001808
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... and/or growth can initiate corrosion. Additionally, the biofilm can cultivate an electrochemical corrosion cell that can lead to localized or general corrosion. The material under the biofilm or deposit is generally the anode while the surrounding area is the cathode. Furthermore, if chloride ions are present...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006823
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... create the ideal environment for the formation of electrochemical corrosion cells ( Ref 15 ). Due to these factors, CUI can be particularly severe when there are environments where the combination of the insulation and the process material form natural traps where liquid and corrosive species can...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006782
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... the electrochemical nature of corrosion and provides the typical analysis of environmental- and corrosion-related failures. It presents common methods of testing of laboratory corrosion and discusses the processes involved in the prevention of environmental- and corrosion-related failures of metals and nonmetals...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001817
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... in the concentration of dissolved gases (principally oxygen) or of soluble contaminants, such as chlorine, fluorine, or sulfur, in water that contacts a part or component. The result is the establishment of an electrochemical cell, with the surface in the region of lowest concentration becoming anodic relative...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006813
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
...) or of soluble contaminants, such as chlorine, fluorine, or sulfur, in water that contacts a part or component. The result is the establishment of an electrochemical cell, with the surface in the region of lowest concentration becoming anodic relative to the surrounding surface. This situation can develop under...