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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001389
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
..., and calibration areas be isolated from molding areas. Ammonia, environment Atmospheric corrosion Circuit breakers Electric contacts, corrosion Electrical resistance 50Ag-50Mo 73W-27Ag Uniform corrosion Background During routine quality control testing, electrical switchgear devices exhibited...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.design.c0091538
EISBN: 978-1-62708-233-4
...Abstract Abstract Electrical contact-finger retainers blanked and formed from annealed copper alloy C65500 (high-silicon bronze A) failed prematurely by cracking while in service in switchgear aboard seagoing vessels. In this service they were sheltered from the weather but subject to indirect...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001493
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
...Abstract Abstract An open electrical circuit was found between plated through-holes in a six-layer printed circuit board after thermal cycling. The copper plating was very thin in the failure area but did make an electrical contact during initial testing. During thermal cycling, differential z...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.homegoods.c0049838
EISBN: 978-1-62708-222-8
... this problem by EPMA necessitated the use of careful metallographic sectioning to expose the regions of electrical contact between the aluminum wire, iron screw, and brass plate in a household electrical plug box that had undergone severe degradation due to the heating. Optical and scanning electron...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001385
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... for use with aluminum shall be coated to inhibit oxidation and contact with copper. The coating must be electrically conductive. Tin has been found to be acceptable. These standards also prescribe heat cycling tests, tightening torques for various types of screws, test currents, and pullout tests...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003562
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... in the plates not moving easily over one another and a stiffening of the spring. The accumulation of debris is also the main problem in the fretting of electrical contacts ( Ref 14 ). Because the oxide debris is nonconducting, interference or distortion of electrical signals can be generated in telephone...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.mech.c0047939
EISBN: 978-1-62708-225-9
...Abstract Abstract Rough operation of the roller bearing mounted in an electric motor/gearbox assembly was observed. The bearing components made of low-alloy steel (4620 or 8620) and the cup, cone and rollers were carburized, hardened and tempered. The contact surfaces of these components (cup...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c0049796
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... requiring rapid mechanical actuation. Figure 1 shows a typical hermetically sealed pyrotechnic actuator. A fine bridgewire is located in contact with the chemical pyrotechnic, and the charge is ignited by electrical heating of the bridgewire. These actuators are required to have high reliabilities...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c0090463
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... contributing factor was the design of the part, which produced significant interference stresses between the contact and a mating retaining tab. Creep strength Housings Polycarbonate Brittle fracture A housing used in conjunction with an electrical switch failed shortly after being placed...
Image
Published: 01 January 2002
Fig. 6 Weld spots on contact surfaces of a type 440C stainless steel ball bearing. The spots are caused by static electrical discharges resulting from use of an electrically nonconductive grease. (a) and (b) Photographs of inner-raceway surface. 10 and 100×, respectively. (c) and (d) SEM More
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001796
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... (VIM + VAR) M50 and M50NiL steels. This process provides microcleanliness and superior contact fatigue strength up to 427°C (800 F). Unfortunately, if such bearings operate in an environment where passage of an electrical current can occur, then a pattern of fluting can develop on the roller...
Image
Published: 30 August 2021
Fig. 33 Weld spots on contact surfaces of a type 440C (X90CrMoV18 or WN 1.4112) stainless steel ball bearing. The spots are caused by static electrical discharges resulting from the use of an electrically nonconductive grease. (a, b) Photographs of inner-raceway surface. Original magnification More
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001843
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
..., which was confirmed as the failure mechanism in the investigation. electrical connectors tin pest plating defect copper alpha tin x-ray diffraction temperature copper (copper contact alloy, general) tin-bismuth (tin-bismuth plating alloy, general) Introduction The element tin has...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001810
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... as electrical equipment and railway cars and locomotives, there is a possibility of electric current passing through the bearings. When the current is broken at the contact surfaces between raceways and rolling elements, arcing or sparking occurs, producing high temperatures and localized damage. The overall...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.rail.c9001607
EISBN: 978-1-62708-231-0
...Abstract Abstract Wire ropes, pulleys, counterweights, and connecting systems are used for auto tensioning of contact wires of electric railways. A wire rope in one such auto tensioning system suffered premature failure. Failure investigation revealed fatigue cracks initiating at nonmetallic...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001831
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
...Abstract Abstract An air blower in an electric power plant failed unexpectedly when a roller bearing in the drive motor fractured along its outer ring. Both rings, as well as the 18 rolling elements, were made from GCr15 bearing steel. The bearing also included a machined brass (MA/C3) cage...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c0048143
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... was concluded to be the reason of the fatigue failure. Rack plating or barrels with fixed button contacts at many points instead of dangler-type contacts were recommended to avoid hard spots. Cadmium plating Cylinders Electric arcs Pneumatic devices Spring steel Surface treatment related failures...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.mech.c0047935
EISBN: 978-1-62708-225-9
... was removed and evidence of a heat-affected zone (HAZ) around the area. Fig. 1 Weld spots on contact surfaces of a type 440C stainless steel ball bearing. The spots are caused by static electrical discharges resulting from use of an electrically nonconductive grease. (a) and (b) Photographs of inner...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006829
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
.... The accumulation of oxide debris is also the main problem in fretting of electrical contacts ( Ref 27 – 32 ). Because the oxide debris is nonconducting, interference or distortion of electrical signals can take place in electrical connectors when subjected to fretting wear. Indeed, the huge developments...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006834
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... of failed bearings are also explained. Finally, the article discusses in detail the characteristics and prevention of the various types of failures of REBs: wear, fretting, corrosion, plastic flow, rolling-contact fatigue, and damage. The article includes an Appendix, which lists REB-related abbreviations...