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Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001820
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... at the origin to the tearing shear fracture at the arrest. Occasionally, the fracture at the origin will be ductile and then change to brittle as the fracture accelerates. The type of fracture that occurs is a function of the temperature of the pipe relative to the transition temperature of the steel. Sample...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006789
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
..., bolted flanges, shrink fits, all in the presence of vibrations; reciprocating arms; electrical contacts; wire ropes Rolling-sliding wear Rolling bearings; cam and follower; gears; wheel-rail system Abrasive wear by hard particles Ore-processing machinery; blades and buckets of earth-moving...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006837
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... and manufacturing defects has become more important. This article presents case histories that are intended as an overview of the unique types of failures encountered in the freight railroad industry. The discussion covers failures of axle journals, bearings, wheels, couplers, rails and rail welds, and track...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003521
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... other. Distortion and fracture describe how a component physically fails, while corrosion and wear describe the physical environment that induces failure. In contrast, one of the most structured and complete systems to define and categorize damage mechanisms was developed by the Electric Power...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001811
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... a limited area. The types of metal components used in lifting equipment include gears, shafts, drums and sheaves, brakes and brake wheels, couplings, bearings, wheels, electrical switchgear, chains, steel wire rope, and hooks. This article will primarily deal with many of these metal components of lifting...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006830
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... Abstract The types of metal components used in lifting equipment include gears, shafts, drums and sheaves, brakes, brake wheels, couplings, bearings, wheels, electrical switchgear, chains, wire rope, and hooks. This article primarily deals with many of these metal components of lifting...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006829
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... of the electrical contact resistance depends on the nature of the coating (noble versus nonnoble) and can be formalized using decreasing power-law functions of the sliding amplitude ( Ref 33 ). Fig. 5 Fretting wear damage in electrical connectors The transportation of goods by road or rail obviously...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006919
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... will constitute failure. A plastic automotive bumper is a good example of this class of failure. A bumper system is required to absorb specified levels of energy while simultaneously protecting the rest of the automobile from damage. If the plastic bumper withstands an impact without damage but undergoes...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.9781627083294
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006822
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... presented. degradation mechanisms failure analysis hydrogen cracking pipeline flaws steel transmission pipelines HAZARDOUS MATERIALS, such as liquid petroleum products and natural gas, are typically transported via truck, rail, sea, and/or pipeline. Of these different transportation modes...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006864
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... are extruded above their melting temperature ( T m ); amorphous thermoplastics are extruded above their glass transition temperature ( T g ). The selection of processing temperature can be guided by material data sheets. If a material data sheet is not available, the selection of processing temperature...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.mech.c9001485
EISBN: 978-1-62708-225-9
... machinery, has also been found to occur during transit and, for reasons which will be apparent on reflection, rail transport is more conducive to this form of trouble than carriage by road. Transport by sea does not guarantee immunity, particularly where pronounced vibrations from Diesel engines may...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.9781627083959
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003562
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... in the second case ( Ref 2 ). The movement was controlled by a long lever system. Because the resultant debris on steel specimens was the red iron oxide α-Fe 2 O 3 , which had risen from a chemical reaction with oxygen in the air, Tomlinson ( Ref 2 ) coined the phrase fretting corrosion . The investigation...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001810
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... of debris Potential sources of electrical current passing through the bearing Potential sources of water and other corrosive fluids Load spectrum and sources of potential-unknown loads Misalignment of deflections that influence load distribution within the bearing system Not all...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003505
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... are negligence, breach of warranty, or strict liability. All three are predicated on the fault system (i.e., a person whose conduct causes injury to another is required to fully and fairly compensate the injured party). The basic method of imposing liability on a defendant requires the plaintiff to prove...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006834
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... engineering. The article presents the nomenclature, numbering systems, and worldwide market of REBs as well as provides description of REBs as high-tech machine components. It discusses heat treatments, performance, and properties of bearing materials. The processes involved in the examination of failed...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006831
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
..., it is equally important to remember that the elevated temperature of the metal can also cause a reaction with air to oxidize the metal as it is being poured, thus reintroducing the possibility of oxides forming, despite the best efforts to remove the slag. The gating and risering systems employed to deliver...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006808
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... to the noncritical components such as ladders and deck railing; ships at the time were built by riveting techniques. However, there was an incentive to use welded construction to speed up construction, reduce tonnage, reduce skin friction by the elimination of plate laps used in riveting, along with the prospect...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006935
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
.... For example, if a designer has been designing wood boats for an extended period of time, it would be easy to overlook the fact that not dissolving in water is a critical material requirement. Critical Requirements Critical requirements can be: Optics (windows, lamp lenses) Electricity (wiring...