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electric arc furnace melting

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001252
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... Crack and precipitates at primary grain boundaries. Unetched longitudinal section. 100 × Fig. 8 Grain boundary precipitates in polarized light. Longitudinal section. 1200 × The melting of the steel in the basic electric arc furnace with a high content of dissociated nitrogen permitted...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c0047010
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... for 15 min in an electric furnace mounted on the tensile-testing machine. Specimens tested at 595 and 620 °C (1100 and 1150 °F) were cycled 1, 5, 10, and 25 times; each cycle consisted of heating in an electric furnace for 4 min to equalize the temperature of the bar, holding at temperature for 15 min...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003509
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... to cracking, a magnetic-particle test was done to check for cracks. No cracks were found, but a few weeks later, the weldments were returned, because cracks had initiated at minute arc strikes that were caused by the prods used to make electrical contact for the magnetic-particle test. Due to their small size...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006831
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... for applications requiring wear resistance. Gray Iron Processing Cupolas, induction furnaces (both coreless and channel induction furnaces), and arc furnaces are used to prepare the molten state required for processing gray cast iron. The economics of the particular situation is the principal factor used...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006808
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... of arc welds. Mechanical and environmental failure origins related to other types of welding processes are also described. The article explains the cause and effects of process-related discontinuities including weld porosity, inclusions, incomplete fusion, and incomplete penetration. Different fitness...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006838
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... for melting and depositing Direct manufacturing Uses electron beam and metal wire for melting and depositing Shaped metal deposition or wire and arc AM Uses electric arc and metal wire for melting and depositing Powder-bed fusion methods Selective laser sintering Uses laser and metal powder...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006787
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... 980 1795 3 Hastelloy X nickel-base superalloy 1205 2200 3 HX (17Cr-66Ni-bal Fe) 1150 2100 3 (a) Seamless tube. (b) Electric-resistance-welded tube The effects of oxygen concentration and temperature are specific to each alloy. Scale growth rate increases...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001810
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... improvement in air-melted bearing steels has occurred in recent years. Bearing steels are currently made by electric-furnace melting, ladle refining, and casting by either bottom or top pouring of ingots or continuous casting. The air-melted steel quality is approaching that of electroslag remelting (ESR...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006822
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... Electric resistance weld flaws Flash weld flaws Furnace butt weld flaws Hook cracks Cold welds Incomplete fusion Stitching Inclusions Shielded metal arc welding flaws Gas metal arc welding flaws Submerged arc welding flaws Misalignment Porosity Incomplete fusion Incomplete...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001814
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
..., unconsolidated interiors, and carbide segregation and poor carbide morphology are reviewed with illustrations. brittle fracture carbide segregation die failure dies electrical discharge machining failure mechanisms finish grinding heat treatment hot working laps machining mechanical testing...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.9781627083294
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006786
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
.... Elemental analysis indicated that copper was found in the cracks. The investigation concluded that superficial melting of the copper fixture resulted in transfer of copper to the surface of the component, and, during the arc melting process, LMIE occurred ( Ref 27 ). Titanium-Cadmium Liquid-metal...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006914
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... materials, does not adequately measure flame spread on materials that drip, melt, or disintegrate. Fig. 2 The Steiner Tunnel Test furnace used to evaluate the flame spread of materials in ASTM E84. Source: Ref 13 ASTM E162, “Standard Test Method for Surface Flammability of Materials Using...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001818
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... steel is made in a furnace normally used to make high-alloy steels. The refractory lining of the furnace may impart sufficient residual chromium and other alloying elements to a heat of low-carbon steel that problems occur when components made from that heat are joined using standard welding procedures...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003522
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... example, when damage occurs by electrical discharge (for example, if a crane touches a power line or if welding has been done on a component on a vehicle while the electrical ground is connected through the unit), the damage can show up in the form of local arcing through the oil film in bearings...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006757
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... is connected through the unit), the damage can show up in the form of local arcing through the oil film in bearings and in local heating at contacting surfaces. Visual or macroscopic examination can reveal these features, as illustrated in Fig. 3 . Fig. 3 Electrical discharge and arcing through...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003508
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... interfere with the ability of the foundry to use the best techniques to produce reliable castings. Defect-free castings can be produced at a price. The multitude of process variables, such as molding mediums, binder, gating and risering, melting and ladle practice, pouring technique, and heat treatment...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006778
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... and environmental factors, such as grain-boundary embrittlement and decohesive separation along the grain boundaries at elevated (creep-regime) temperatures. For service temperatures below the creep regime (i.e., approximately 0.4 to 0.5 times the melting temperature of the alloy) and with appropriate materials...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006765
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... to 56 HRC) and etches darker. The unaffected matrix is beneath this zone, off the edge of the micrograph. Figure 1(b) shows the extreme surface at high magnification. Incipient melting can be observed to a depth of approximately 10 μm. The light-etching zone contains untempered martensite, because...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003532
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... that was softer (53 to 56 HRC) and etches darker. The unaffected matrix is beneath this zone, off the edge of the micrograph. Figure 9(b) shows the extreme surface at high magnification. Incipient melting can be observed to a depth of approximately 10 μm. The light-etching zone contains untempered martensite...