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electric arc furnace

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001252
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... ). Fig. 7 Crack and precipitates at primary grain boundaries. Unetched longitudinal section. 100 × Fig. 8 Grain boundary precipitates in polarized light. Longitudinal section. 1200 × The melting of the steel in the basic electric arc furnace with a high content of dissociated nitrogen...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.steel.c9001149
EISBN: 978-1-62708-232-7
... of submerged arc electric furnaces at the site, with parallel exhaust systems running generally east/west from the furnaces to a baghouse, as shown on Fig. 1 . These furnaces burn a mixture of wood chips, bituminous coal and coke. In each system, exhaust gases are drawn from the furnace up through three...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c0047010
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... being held at temperature for 15 min in an electric furnace mounted on the tensile-testing machine. Specimens tested at 595 and 620 °C (1100 and 1150 °F) were cycled 1, 5, 10, and 25 times; each cycle consisted of heating in an electric furnace for 4 min to equalize the temperature of the bar, holding...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001820
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... types, according to location: defects in the body of the pipe, longitudinal weld defects, or field girth weld defects. Five types of longitudinal welds have been used to produce pipe. These are single- and double-submerged arc welds, electric-resistance welds, furnace butt welds, flash welds...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001609
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... furnace that encased the tube-to-header welds and a portion of the finned tubes. In the field, joints were wrapped with electrical resistance strip heaters and insulation. Temperature monitoring and control was by direct attachment of thermocouples and multiple channel controllers and chart recorders...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006831
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... to ASTM International A27, grade 65-35; properties from an 8 × 13 × 18 cm (3 × 5 × 7 in.) keel block; basic electric steel, deoxidized with 1.1 kg (2.5 lb) of aluminum per ton of molten metal. (a) Annealed at 925 °C (1700 °F) for 12 h, furnace cooled. Microstructure: 30% fine pearlite, 70% primary...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003509
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... to cracking, a magnetic-particle test was done to check for cracks. No cracks were found, but a few weeks later, the weldments were returned, because cracks had initiated at minute arc strikes that were caused by the prods used to make electrical contact for the magnetic-particle test. Due to their small size...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006822
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... Electric resistance weld flaws Flash weld flaws Furnace butt weld flaws Hook cracks Cold welds Incomplete fusion Stitching Inclusions Shielded metal arc welding flaws Gas metal arc welding flaws Submerged arc welding flaws Misalignment Porosity Incomplete fusion Incomplete...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006808
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... in weld metal Fig. 6 Effect of weld geometry on solidification cracking susceptibility. Reprinted from Ref 10 with permission from The Lincoln Electric Company Fig. 7 Causes and cures of cold cracking in weld metal. TSN, thermal severity number Fig. 8 Causes and cures...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001818
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... steel is made in a furnace normally used to make high-alloy steels. The refractory lining of the furnace may impart sufficient residual chromium and other alloying elements to a heat of low-carbon steel that problems occur when components made from that heat are joined using standard welding procedures...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001810
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... A significant improvement in air-melted bearing steels has occurred in recent years. Bearing steels are currently made by electric-furnace melting, ladle refining, and casting by either bottom or top pouring of ingots or continuous casting. The air-melted steel quality is approaching that of electroslag...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006838
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... for melting and depositing Direct manufacturing Uses electron beam and metal wire for melting and depositing Shaped metal deposition or wire and arc AM Uses electric arc and metal wire for melting and depositing Powder-bed fusion methods Selective laser sintering Uses laser and metal powder...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.9781627083294
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003512
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... by an arrow). (b) Plot showing how fracture information is used to establish initial and recurring inspection requirements Fig. 7 Effect of welding on the life of a carbon steel structure. (a) and (b) 46 cm (18 in.) long crack found in a carbon steel as-forged nozzle that was arc gouged. Failure...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001814
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
..., unconsolidated interiors, and carbide segregation and poor carbide morphology are reviewed with illustrations. brittle fracture carbide segregation die failure dies electrical discharge machining failure mechanisms finish grinding heat treatment hot working laps machining mechanical testing...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006802
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... and Life Prediction for High-Temperature Gas Turbine Materials , Proc. Conf. Life Prediction for High Temperature Gas Turbine Materials , EPRI AP-4477, Project 2382-3, Electric Power Research Institute , April 1986 , p 1.1 – 1.17 3. Viswanathan R. and Dooley R.B. , Creep Life...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003522
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
.... As another example, when damage occurs by electrical discharge (for example, if a crane touches a power line or if welding has been done on a component on a vehicle while the electrical ground is connected through the unit), the damage can show up in the form of local arcing through the oil film in bearings...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006757
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
.... 2 Bolt that failed in fatigue. The smooth dark areas are from initial fatigue cracking, now coated with dark adherent oxide. This initial cracking took place some years prior to the later fracture, the surface of which is covered by a less adherent rust coating. Fig. 3 Electrical...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006787
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
...-base superalloy 1040 1905 3 S-816 cobalt-base alloy 980 1795 3 Hastelloy X nickel-base superalloy 1205 2200 3 HX (17Cr-66Ni-bal Fe) 1150 2100 3 (a) Seamless tube. (b) Electric-resistance-welded tube General power plant classifications Table 2 General...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006786
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... on SAE 4340 Steel in the Presence of Stress Concentrations at Elevated Temperatures ,” WADC TR 58-108, ASTIA 151075 , 1958 16. Breyer N.N. , Some Effects of Certain Trace Elements on the Properties of High Strength Steels . Proc. 31st Electric Furnace Conf., 1974 17. Le May...