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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001811
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
..., fracture, or elastic collapse (buckling). The evaluation and monitoring of these stresses by nondestructive method may play an important role in assessing the life of the components. In this study, the presence of residual stresses is analyzed by eddy current method. Further, a complete investigation...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001044
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... leaking tube cut into 1.2 m (4 ft) lengths. The second sample was a piece cut from a nonleaking tube. Preliminary test results showed that both tubes were severely cracked and pitted from the outside surface. Eddy current testing was performed on 2% of the tubes evenly distributed throughout...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006764
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... generally were linear on a log-log scale, with variance normally distributed around the mean, independent of crack size ( Fig. 2 ). Fig. 2 Illustration of the linear relationship observed between nondestructive testing signal magnitude and crack size in automated eddy-current bolt-hole inspections...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003515
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... to understand how safe and reliable that equipment or structure might be over this additional time of service. Common Measurement Techniques Many measurement techniques are employed in NDE. Those most widely used are visual, liquid penetrant, magnetic particle, eddy current, ultrasonic, and radiographic...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006758
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
..., to investigate more detailed information into the volume of the component. NDE techniques such as eddy current testing (ET) for electrically-conductive materials, full volumetric inspection using ultrasonic testing (UT) for metals, and radiographic testing (RT) are available in these instances. Eddy current...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003524
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
...: magnetic-particle inspection of ferrous metals, liquid-penetrant inspection, ultrasonic inspection, and sometimes eddy-current inspection. All these tests are used to detect surface cracks and discontinuities. Radiography is used mainly for internal examination. A photographic record of the results...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003516
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... components eddy current, ultrasonic, x-ray, dye-penetrant, and visual inspections are regularly accomplished. Fatigue Crack Growth Variables The fundamental variables involved in any life assessment are those that describe the effects and interaction of material behavior, geometry, and stress history...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006768
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... on a given component with standard nondestructive evaluation techniques (i.e., visual inspection, eddy current, fluorescent dye penetrant, ultrasonic, etc.). In more complicated structures, the failure analyst must identify the components and locations most vulnerable to cracking. Empirical Observation...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003528
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... of failure. This may be relatively straightforward or difficult, depending on the type of component and/or structure in question. Generally, the point of origin of a crack can be easily located on a given component with standard nondestructive evaluation techniques (i.e., visual inspection, eddy current...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006808
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
.... The most widely used inspection methods in the welding industry are visual, liquid penetrant, magnetic particle, radiographic, ultrasonic, acoustic emission, eddy current, and the electric current perturbation technique. Each of these methods and techniques (within each method) has its own specific...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006782
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... inspection (MPI), ultrasound testing, eddy current and computed tomography (CT). Neither FPI nor MPI are recommended if scale or surface deposits are present, because the testing fluids used in the procedure would alter the original composition of the deposits. Both FPI and MPI can be performed, if required...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003507
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... in another location, it has to do so because the local stress (residual and/or applied) was higher than along the centerline, although there may be exceptions. Some exceptions include the random distribution of fine quench cracks in steels at locations where martensite formed after quenching or the cracking...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006780
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... for a specific heat of material are available. Bulk Volume Creep Assessment The aforementioned techniques are restricted to evaluation of the surface condition of components. However, recently, conventional NDT techniques, such as ultrasonic and eddy-current testing, and nonconventional NDT techniques...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006807
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... leads to reduction of stress and redistribution of load carrying onto adjacent material. Failure occurs only when the strength loss has distributed over a sufficient volume that the remaining structure is no longer able to support the external load. This relaxation and redistribution of stresses arising...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006813
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... or tubing strive to minimize or eliminate surface or subsurface imperfections produced during manufacture. Nondestructive inspection, such as by eddy-current, ultrasonic, air-under-water, and hydrostatic tests, is used to detect these imperfections. Each test has its limitations. Hydrostatic and air...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006785
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... was encountered in copper alloys, caustic embrittlement was experienced in boilers. (Caustic embrittlement is also known as caustic cracking. Both of these terms are considered archaic; currently, the term caustic stress-corrosion cracking is used to describe the same phenomenon.) Cracking was observed around...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006816
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
.... For these three microstructures prior to induction heating, the uniformity of the carbon distribution is highest in the low-temperature tempered martensite and lowest in the annealed material where regions of low-carbon ferrite exist with dispersed high-carbon carbides. Figure 7 shows that for a specific...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003553
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... apparently reflected a characteristically uneven distribution of stress on the four corners of the workpiece during forming and in service, by which one corner was more highly stressed than the three others. Cracking on one corner appeared to relieve the stress on the other corners. Corrective Measures...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006825
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
...-particle inspection, ultrasonic inspection, eddy-current testing, x-ray or gamma-ray radiography, in situ metallography, and hardness tests. These methods are used for evaluation of defects present on the surface, at subsurface, or within the interior of the bulk solids. Each one has its own merits...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003512
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... Evaluation of the effects of stiffeners on stress distribution Establishment of aircraft structural integrity program (ASIP) in 1958 F-111 Aircraft No. 94 wing pivot fitting ( Ref 11 ) 1969 Fatigue failure due to material defect in high-strength steel Improved inspection techniques Change from fatigue...