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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001609
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... was the most likely cause of failure. 439 Intergranular stress corrosion Postweld heat treatment Sensitization 430 UNS S43000 Intergranular fracture Stress-corrosion cracking Heat-Recovery Steam Generator Design Ferritic Stainless Steel Feedwater Economizer Design and Fabrication...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001569
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... (approximately 40 tubes were repaired this way). The fin ends of all tubes were profile trimmed to better redistribute the local strains into the tube ( Figure 19 ). The unit ran with no further failures for approximately 1– 1 2 years. The economizer was then replaced with one of a different design...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003504
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... protection. The remaining potential tasks were evaluated to determine whether they were economically useful. These procedures provide a systematic review of the aircraft design so that, in the absence of real experience, the best (maintenance) process can be utilized for each component or system” ( Ref 5...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003505
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... in the event of injury or failure) Probability (including frequency and exposure of the failure mode) that such a danger will occur Technical feasibility of a safer alternative design, including possible remedies or corrective action Economic feasibility of these possible alternatives Possible...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006754
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... by the fact that many people define the causes of failure in a rather binary manner: was the part defective or was it abused? Obviously, there are many types of defects, including those that come from a deficient design, poor material, or mistakes in manufacturing. Whether those “defects” exist in a given...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003518
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... are sent to a basic metallurgy and testing class. Latent causes or factors Nobody tells furnace operator about the importance of hardness testing. It does not matter that she fabricated test results, until the pyrometer fails, causing incorrect temperature exposure during austenitization. Design...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003501
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... in design and processing was required. However, with the heightened awareness of efficient design, optimized performance, economic competition, environmental impacts, safety concerns, and legal liability, current methods of materials selection are viewed more and more as a simultaneous and integral...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003512
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... intended function safely, reliably, and economically” ( Ref 3 ). With some modifications, the definitions used by Viswanathan and Dooley for fossil-fuel power steam plant components ( Ref 3 ) can be used to define failure and life of components; that is, component life is expended when: Design life...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001825
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
...Abstract Abstract A type 304 stainless steel tube that failed in a boiler stack economizer was analyzed to determine the cause. The investigation consisted of visual, SEM/EDS, and metallographic analysis. Several degradation mechanisms appeared to be at work, including pitting corrosion...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003558
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
.... wear failures wear modeling WEAR is a persistent service condition in many engineering applications with important economic and technical consequences. In terms of economics, the cost of abrasion wear has been estimated as ranging from 1 to 4% of the gross national product of an industrialized...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003567
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
...), National Association of Corrosion Engineers , 1988 39. Roco M.C. , Optimum Wearing High Efficiency Design of Phosphate Slurry Pumps , Proc. 11th International Conference of Slurry Technology, March 1986 , p 277 – 285 40. Roco M.C. and Nair P. , Erosion of Concentrated...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001816
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
...-corrosion cracking (SCC) and hydrogen damage; fracture, including fatigue fracture, thermal fatigue fracture, and stress rupture; and distortion, especially distortion involving thermal-expansion effects or creep. The causes of failure can generally be classified as design defects; fabrication defects...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.auto.c0047846
EISBN: 978-1-62708-218-1
...Abstract Abstract An 8640 steel shaft installed in a fuel-injection-pump governor that controlled the speed of a diesel engine used in trucks and tractors broke after few days of operation. The mechanism that drove the shaft was designed to include a slip clutch to protect the governor shaft...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001780
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... of the anisotropic properties for the material, or if resulfurized grades are specified later in the manufacturing process due to economic factors. Proper design would utilize the correct property values for the transverse direction of the material. Since these values are generally not specified or available...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.machtools.c0089429
EISBN: 978-1-62708-223-5
... Cracking (fracturing) Design Nonmetallic inclusions Twist drills M1 UNS T11301 (Other, general, or unspecified) fracture A 1.905 cm (0.75 in.) stud broke in the vertical wall of a metalworking machine known as an upsetter . A parallel vertical wall left a limited amount of space in which...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006784
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... Hydrogen damage is a term used to designate a number of processes in metals by which the load-carrying capacity of the metal is reduced due to the presence of hydrogen. This article introduces the general forms of hydrogen damage and provides an overview of the different types of hydrogen damage in all...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003552
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... of the wide economic impact in commodity-grade components, it is worthwhile to look at failure analysis for this specific type of hydrogen damage. The third section of the article is intended to be able to be understood and used by engineering managers, quality engineers, design engineers, and manufacturing...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006782
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
.... corrosion control corrosion prevention corrosion testing corrosion-related failures environmental-related failures metals nonmetals CORROSION is the deterioration of a material by a reaction of that material with its environment. A study by NACE International in 2016 examined nine world economic...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.auto.c0091598
EISBN: 978-1-62708-218-1
... of the hoppers. Although high stress levels in the steel resulting from welding, unloading, and traveling on uneven roads contributed to the cracking, it was more economical to coat the interior surfaces of the steel hoppers properly than to design for minimum stress levels or to make a change in material...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.petrol.c9001590
EISBN: 978-1-62708-228-0
... 601 UNS N06601 Intergranular fracture Steam reforming of natural gas is considered the most economic process for industrial hydrogen production. By this process, a mixture of methane and steam forms hydrogen, carbon monoxide, and carbon dioxide while flowing through a catalyst bed. Steam...