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ductile materials

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Published: 01 June 2019
Fig. 14 Stress-strain curve for ductile material More
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006795
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... of industries. This article describes the processes involved in erosion of ductile materials, brittle materials, and elastomers. Some examples of erosive wear failures are given on abrasive erosion, liquid impingement erosion, cavitation, and erosion-corrosion. In addition, the article provides information...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.bldgs.c0060097
EISBN: 978-1-62708-219-8
... by metallographic examination. The fracture features were found to be characteristic of an overload failure in a ductile material. The ruptured tubes were concluded as a result of examination to have failed as a result of excessive internal pressure. The source of the excessive internal pressure was assumed...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003569
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... Abstract This article considers two mechanisms of cavitation failure: those for ductile materials and those for brittle materials. It examines the different stages of cavitation erosion. The article explains various cavitation failures including cavitation in bearings, centrifugal pumps...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003568
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... materials with the aid of models and equations. It presents three examples of erosive wear failures, namely, abrasive erosion, erosion-corrosion, and cavitation erosion. abrasive erosion brittle materials cavitation erosion ductile materials erosion erosion corrosion EROSION...
Image
Published: 01 June 2019
Fig. 1 Micrograph of a transverse section of a burst copper evaporator tube showing the longitudinal rupture present in one of the failed tubes. At the fracture, grain deformation and necking down of the tube wall are evident. Such features are characteristic of overload failure in a ductile More
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c0045988
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... (1050 °F) for 2 h. Slow-bend tests and metallographic examination were performed on both specimens. The specimen from the failed strap exhibited restored bend ductility and a refined grain size of ASTM 5 to 6. The specimen from the unfailed strap, originally a ductile material, fractured by cleavage...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001119
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... of the torsional moment. Ductile material in torsion fails because of shear overload perpendicularly to the axis of the torsional moment. When a ductile material fails by torsional overload, ductile features (dimples) are expected on the fracture surface. When a ductile material fails in torsion...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006775
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... depends on the temperature, loading rate, state of stress, and degree of constraint. In an ideal material containing neither inclusions nor second phases, ductile fracture would be expected to occur by slip and possibly twinning and result in complete reduction in area ( Fig. 1 ). Alternately...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003538
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... geometric factors and materials aspects that influence the stress-strain behavior and fracture of ductile metals. It highlights fractures arising from manufacturing imperfections and stress raisers. The article presents a root cause failure analysis case history to illustrate some of the fractography...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003543
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... Abstract Overload failures refer to the ductile or brittle fracture of a material when stresses exceed the load-bearing capacity of a material. This article reviews some mechanistic aspects of ductile and brittle crack propagation, including a discussion on mixed-mode cracking, which may also...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003537
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... in the figure, a dimpled fracture surface is uniquely associated with the microscale mechanism of microvoid coalescence, which typically is associated with macroscopic ductile fractures. However, macroscale brittle fractures can also occur when plastic deformation is limited to a small volume of material...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006774
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... of polymeric and ceramic materials are also included. (Fractography of electronic components is addressed in detail in Ref 1 .) In summary, the following are key features in distinguishing between monotonic versus fatigue fracture and ductile versus brittle fractures (on either a macroscale or microscale...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006778
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... OVERLOAD FAILURES, from the perspective of materials failure analysts, refer to the ductile or brittle fracture of a material when stresses exceed the load-bearing capacity of the material from either excessive applied stress or degradation of the load-bearing capacity of the material from damage...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003545
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
...-ductile materials with the ability to sustain significant amounts of crack growth before failure. However, most engineering alloys can lose ductility during high-temperature service, because the diffusion of impurities to the grain boundaries becomes more pronounced. Formation of precipitates can also...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001781
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... a complete state of stress at the failure point in regard to forces. The calculation of stress for a ductile material under bending outside the elastic region is complex. Bending strain varies linearly, but because the material is ductile, the stress in that region is far from linear. To determine the force...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.mech.c0046057
EISBN: 978-1-62708-225-9
...; however, a shear lip at the inside diameter indicated an inherently ductile material. The difference in hardness, etching characteristics, and surface appearance of other parts of the ring indicated that the small hard spot was untempered martensite that formed as the result of an arc strike during...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006767
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... is not often used because of its inability to predict behavior when one principal stress is negative and another positive. When used to predict failure of materials that are not very ductile, none of the classic models are able to predict behavior very well in all four quadrants of biaxial stress space...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006780
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... of smooth-bar laboratory testing. Fortunately, service conditions can be partly reproduced in the laboratory by use of the notched-bar test. Notched-bar stress-rupture tests are of principal interest for metallic materials due to the relationship between stress-rupture ductility and the ratio of notched-bar...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003530
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... used to predict failure of materials that are not very ductile, none of the classic models are able to predict behavior very well in all four quadrants of biaxial stress space. A maximum normal stress criterion is sometimes used but again poorly predicts behavior when principal stresses are of opposite...