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dual-phase steels

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001816
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
.... Steelmak. 39 ( 7 ), 477 – 482 ( 2012 ) 10.1179/0301923312Z.000000000123 9. Mukherjee K. , Hazra S.S. , Militzer M. : Grain refinement in dual-phase steels . Metall. Mater. Trans. A 40A , 2145 – 2159 ( 2009 ) 10.1007/s11661-009-9899-9 10. Quintana M.J. , Gonzalez...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001609
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
...% Cr ferritic alloy 405 with 0.08% C is not. 1 , 2 Fig. 3 Fe-Cr alloy phase diagram 15 Similar to standard 18Cr-8Ni austenitic stainless steels, Cr and C in these Cr-Fe ferritic alloys react to form Cr carbide precipitates when heated to 315 to 925 °C (600 to 1700 °F). Precipitates...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c0046044
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... but before tempering. Microscopic examinations of ethereal picral etched sections indicated that the cracks appeared before or during the final tempering phase of the heat treatment and that cracking had occurred while the steel was in the as-quenched condition, before its 315 deg C (600 deg F) snap temper...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003538
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... to have a low-strength interface bond (if any) with the matrix and have mechanical properties different from those of the matrix. In steels, these inclusions fall into three general groups: Stringer types that are sulfides and perhaps contain additional phases Spheroidal types (oxides...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006775
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... particle shows multiple cracks and shattering. Courtesy of R. Holman, University of Tennessee In materials containing a dual distribution of particle sizes (for example, MnS inclusions and spheroidal carbides in a quenched and tempered steel), a dual-dimple size is often seen on the fracture surface...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006759
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... as a bulk analysis, and then perform point analysis in particular locations such as inclusions, origins, segregated phases, corrosion products, and contaminants. Figure 7 shows microscale chemical analysis of a niobium carbide in a precipitation-hardened (PH) steel fracture surface and the corresponding...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006826
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... in a matrix of ferrite microstructure. Cutting tool life increased and short broken chips formed while machining the dual-phase low-carbon piston cups ( Ref 6 ). Often during dry machining of gray cast iron, graphite particles are pulled from the matrix microstructure. These graphite particles leave...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.design.c9001578
EISBN: 978-1-62708-233-4
... the vibration. Modifications to the supervisory system to allow DC coupling are being considered. This will allow the operators to avoid the unstable load ranges, because nothing can be done to prevent the Rheingan Influence. Case #2: Vibration of Steel Strip Caused by an Induction Furnace in a Steel Mill...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006787
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... Carbon and alloy steels AISI 1010 carbon steel 480 895 3 SA-178, grade A 510 (a) 950 (a) 4 SA-192; SA-210, grade A 510 (a) 950 (b) 4 SA-209, grade T-1A 525 (b) 975 (b) 4 1Cr-Mo-Si; SA-213, grade T-11 565 (b) 1050 (b) 4 2Cr-1Mo-Si; SA-213, grade T-22...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003537
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... on fracture path Effects on fracture mechanics properties Phase morphology in α-β titanium alloys Change from α and β grains to α in β Crack branching and irregularity greatly increased Higher K Ic and K Issc Increased resistance to fatigue crack growth Large particles in steels...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006774
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
...-strength quenched and tempered steel is significantly smoother overall than is the overload fracture of a pearlitic steel or annealed copper. Also, fracture surface roughness increases as a crack propagates, so the roughest area on the fracture surface is usually the last to fail ( Fig. 4 ) ( Ref 4...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006792
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... for bearing steels. The standard solution is to quench and temper the steel to produce a fine, uniform, tempered martensite. This results in a material with a Vickers hardness of 750 or higher that is resistant to RCF as well as wear. Another alternative gaining popularity is a dual-phase bainite/martensite...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006783
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... is assumed in the active state ( Fig. 3 ). These are noted by black blocks in the diagram. This dual position in galvanic series in chloride-bearing aqueous environments has been the cause of some serious design errors. More precise information on the galvanic behavior of stainless steels can be obtained...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003528
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... the scope of this article, XRD techniques can also be used for the measurement of percent retained austenite ( Ref 19 ), and other phases, pole figures ( Ref 7 ), and other analyses too numerous to mention. Residual Stress in Failures and XRD Analysis The residual stresses present in a component can...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006768
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... of percent retained austenite ( Ref 26 ) as well as other phases, pole figures ( Ref 7 , 15 ), and other analyses too numerous to mention. Residual Stress in Failures and X-Ray Diffraction Analysis The residual stresses present in a component can arise in almost every step of processing ( Ref 1...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006782
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... in water or seawater that is exposed to the atmosphere (a steel pier piling, for example). Corrosion occurs. The anodic reaction is: (Eq 14) Fe → Fe 2 + + 2 e − Because the medium is exposed to the atmosphere, it contains dissolved oxygen. Water and seawater are nearly neutral...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001812
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
...: Fatigue Fracture of 1045 Steel U-Bolts on a Tractor Fitting When a farm tractor is to be used on sticky or wet soils, it is common practice to attach dual driving wheels to the rear axles of the tractor by using fittings such as that shown in Fig. 8 . SAE, grade 5, U-bolts are used to fasten...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001632
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... area, a system called Monitor was developed. Monitor uses dual-force feedback manipulators and “sees” through a series of closed-circuit television cameras. It has several joints for angular movement and articulation for reaching. Controls are contained in a remote space shielded from the radioactive...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003548
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... active position is assumed in the active state ( Fig. 3 ). These are noted by black blocks in the diagram. This dual position in galvanic series in chloride-bearing aqueous environments has been the cause of some serious design errors. More precise information on the galvanic behavior of stainless steels...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006805
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... cracking of the bolts through the cut threads. Fig. 7 Fitting for attaching dual wheels to a tractor axle that failed when 1045 steel U-bolts in the assembly were overstressed. The bolts failed because of poor hardenability relative to their diameter. Investigation The bolt legs in which...