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droplet transfer modes

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001339
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
...Abstract Abstract The failure mode of through-wall cracking of a butt weld in a 5083-O aluminum alloy piping system in an ethylene plant was identified as mercury liquid metal embrittlement. As a result of this finding, 226 of the more than 400 butt welds in the system were ultrasonically...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001314
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... may develop if boiling of the liquid pool occurs such that droplets of fluid spatter onto the dry wall. There, the droplets are vaporized and the resulting heat transfer quenches the heated metal at localized regions, again setting up thermally generated biaxial tensile stress gradients, but on a more...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001125
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... are not complementary. Scanning Electron Microscopy/Fractography Scanning electron microscopy/fractography confirmed that the aluminum connector failed in a ductile mode, with micropores and dimples ( Fig. 4 ). Fig. 4 Scanning electron micrograph of ductile fracture in the connector. Corrosion...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001816
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... (3000 °F). By the time the flue gas has left the furnace, it has been cooled to 925 to 1095 °C (1700 to 2000 °F), and convection is the predominant mode of heat transfer. Second, conduction through the steel boiler tubes transfers heat to the internal fluid. Although conduction is important, boiler...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003524
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... mechanics fracture modes fracture surface lubricants macroscopic examination mechanical testing microscopic examination nondestructive inspection sampling simulated-service testing stress analysis wear failure ANALYZING the inevitable failures that occur during testing, manufacturing...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006792
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
...Abstract Abstract Rolling-contact fatigue (RCF) is a common failure mode in components subjected to rolling or rolling-sliding contact. This article provides a basic understanding of RCF and a broad overview of materials and manufacturing techniques commonly used in industry to improve...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003567
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... to the metal surface and corrosion rates. Corrosion products and the mass transfer of oxygen play an important role in the total material losses encountered in straight sections of a carbon steel pipeline. The material loss rate is under oxygen mass transfer control, with corrosion being the dominant mode...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003558
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... relative to it. Wear is progressive in that it increases with usage or increasing amounts of motion, and it ultimately results in the loss of material from a surface or the transfer of material between surfaces. Wear failures occur because of the sensitivity of a material or system to the surface changes...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003569
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... a cluster of cavities. Interactions between bubble collapses in a cluster may be very complex. Energy generated by the collapse of outer cavities in the cluster may be transferred to the cluster center, leading to an increase of local hydrostatic pressure higher than that due to an individual collapse...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001809
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
.... There is a limited number of modes or mechanisms by which small amounts of material can be removed from a larger body. These are ductile fracture, brittle fracture, high-cycle (ordinary) fatigue, low-cycle (plastic) fatigue, melting, and chemical dissolution. Hydrogen embrittlement is an example of a hybrid...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.marine.c9001591
EISBN: 978-1-62708-227-3
... inclusions Passenger ships Ship plate Steel making Carbon steel Mixed-mode fracture One evening in early 1907, Lord William James Pirrie, managing director and controlling chairman, Harland and Wolff, Shipbuilders, Belfast, Northern Ireland, entertained at dinner J. Bruce Ismay, chairman, Oceanic...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003508
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
..., superficial cavities in the form of droplets of shallow spots, generally gray-green in color Slag inclusions D 200: Serious surface defects D 210: Deep indentation of the casting surface D 211 Deep indentation, often over large area of drag half of casting Push-up, clamp-off D...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006782
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
..., the metal would spontaneously become electrically charged, which is impossible. The corrosion of zinc in hydrochloric acid is an electrochemical process. That is, any reaction that can be divided into two or more partial reactions of oxidation and reduction due to the transfer of electrical charge is termed...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006783
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... across heavily worked areas. End grains should not be left exposed. RD, rolling direction. (d) Galvanic corrosion is possible if a coated component is cut. When necessary, the cathodic component of a couple should be coated. (e) Ion transfer through a fluid can result in galvanic attack of less noble...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006753
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
..., and material, which are discussed in the following sections along with examples. The tools available for failure analysis are then covered. Further, the article describes the categories of mode of failure: distortion or undesired deformation, fracture, corrosion, and wear. It provides information...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001818
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... (distortion) of the stainless steel piping and further crack penetration into the piping wall. The cracks continued to propagate during service from stresses induced in the piping. In another case, a transfer line carrying 73% sodium hydroxide developed a leak at a weld joining a cast Monel coupling...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003553
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... mechanical tests. Microscopically, the fracture mode for SCC is usually different from the fracture mode for plane-strain fractures in the same alloy. There appears to be a threshold stress below which SCC does not occur, at least in some systems. The passage of time has not negated...