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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c0048665
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
... Abstract The jackscrew drive pins on a landing-gear bogie failed when the other bogie on the same side of the airplane was kneeled for tire change. The pins, made of 300M steel, were shot peened and chromium plated on the outside surface and were cadmium plated and painted with polyurethane...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.steel.c9001231
EISBN: 978-1-62708-232-7
... from the gear side to more than half the rim width. A second incipient failure commenced from the opposite tooth bottom. Both fractures have joined below the tooth of the rim. The failure on the drive side, bottom in Fig. 1 and left in Fig. 2 , should have arisen primarily, while the other one...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.design.c9001551
EISBN: 978-1-62708-233-4
... Abstract A multi-million dollar, four-color printing press used to produce a major weekly magazine was breaking pinions (shouldered shafts) on rolls. The cause of fracture was cyclic fatigue. Steel quality and heat treatment met expected standards. The pinion fracture showed multiple origins...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.design.c9001689
EISBN: 978-1-62708-233-4
... Abstract The drive shaft on a centrifugal pump fractured after five months of operation. The fracture occurred at a packing gland inside a sleeve against which the packing material sealed. The shaft and sleeve were of duplex stainless steel. In contrast to a previous conclusion that heating had...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.conag.c9001633
EISBN: 978-1-62708-221-1
... of the six wheel hubs on that side of the crane failed. The wheel failure led to an axle failure while the crane was still moving. The failed wheel was the second in line and the leading drive wheel for the crane (the drive wheels are the second and third wheels in line). A general view of two of the six...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001808
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
..., as well as how their alignment may be affected by deflections or distortions that can occur as a result of mechanical loads, shock, vibrations, or thermal gradients, should be considered. The method of connecting the driving or driven member to the shaft, such as press fitting, welding, or use...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006820
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... a straight, flat component with teeth that match the geometry of the driving gear, the pinion. As shown in the figure, they can be spur or helical sets, and both are often used in automotive steering systems and as linear actuators. Figure 3 shows a large industrial reducer with a pair of double...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001815
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... ). The action between the mating teeth has a wedging effect, which results in sliding on tooth flanks. These gears have low load-carrying capacity, but are useful where shafts must rotate at an angle to each other. Worm-Gear Sets Worm-gear sets are usually right-angle drives consisting of a worm gear...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003539
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... loading of prismatic members and rotating bending of shafts, the driving force for fatigue initiation (e.g., stress range) is relatively uniform over extended volumes or regions. For relatively low driving force, fatigue initiates at one or a few locations within these extended regions or volumes where...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006805
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... raisers and unfavorable shear planes. Source: Ref 7 Example 2: Fatigue Fracture of Modified 1035 Steel Cap Screws The drive-line assembly shown in Fig. 6(a) failed during vehicle testing. The vehicle had traveled 9022 km (5606 miles) before the failure occurred. Both the intact and fractured...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006810
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... start at the most vulnerable point in a dynamically stressed area—typically a stress raiser, which may be mechanical, metallurgical, or sometimes a combination of the two. Mechanical stress raisers include such features as small fillets, sharp corners, grooves, splines, keyways, nicks, and press...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006776
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... that act as points of stress concentration, facilitating fatigue crack initiation. In many common situations, such as uniaxial loading of prismatic members and rotating bending of shafts, the driving force for fatigue initiation (e.g., stress range) is relatively uniform over extended volumes...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001812
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... resistance can be improved by changing to a material with higher strength and endurance limit, as shown in the following example. Example 2: Fatigue Fracture of Modified 1035 Steel Cap Screws The drive-line assembly shown in Fig. 7(a) failed during vehicle testing. The vehicle had traveled 9022 km...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003505
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... set of circumstances that present an injury potential (e.g., a railroad crossing at grade, a toxic chemical, a sharp knife, the jaws of a power press). Risk is the probability of injury and is affected by proximity, exposure, noise, light, experience, attention arresters, intelligence of an involved...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c9001713
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... of the blender there is a gear (approximately 1.3 m diameter) that rotates the blender for mixing. Several water lines enter the jacket on this side. For support on the other side, the blender has a steel wheel that rides on several smaller wheels. The belt drive that turns the agitator bar inside the blender...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.design.c9001578
EISBN: 978-1-62708-233-4
... used so that a comparison between the two methods could be made. A strain gage was mounted at a 45° angle on the drive shaft and between the gearcase and the belt used to drive the reciprocating pump. An FM transmitter and a battery were also mounted on the drive shaft to transmit the strain...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006918
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... of stress intensity under cyclic loading conditions is the driving force for crack propagation. Paris et al. ( Ref 11 ) established that the stress-intensity factor range, Δ K = K max − K min , which captures the far-field cyclic stress, crack length, and geometry, is the characteristic driving...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003571
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... failure of an antifriction bearing, a nylon driving gear, and a polyoxymethylene gear wheel. antifriction bearing cohesive wear elastomers glassy thermoplastics interfacial wear lubricant mechanical properties nylon nylon driving gear plastics polyoxymethylene gear wheel semicrystalline...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003564
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... Surface cracks caused by manufacturing pressing faults or blunt impact loads are the most common types found on ceramic ball surfaces. Figure 1 illustrates typical images of the crack defects found on the ceramic ball surface. Most of the defects are ring cracks. Lateral and radial surface cracks...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003551
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... phenomena all come into play). Basic Principles It is generally accepted that corrosion of refractories and ceramics are the result of some specific chemical reactions rather than electrochemical reactions. It is then appropriate to estimate first the driving force or the propensity of a given...