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drawn-arc welding

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001800
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... examinations determined that the fractures stemmed from electric arc damage. Intergranular quench cracks in the transformed untempered martensite on the surface of the spring provided crack initiations that propagated during operation causing fatigue fracture. torsion springs fracture electrical arcing...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001811
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... of sheaves and drums, conditions producing corrosion and abrasion, and length of rope. Cold-drawn high-carbon steel wire, the type generally used in wire rope, has a modulus of elasticity of approximately 1.93 to 1.99 × 10 5 MPa (28,000 to 29,000 ksi). Modulus of elasticity is the measure of the degree...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001820
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
...Types of defects that can cause pipeline failures Table 1 Types of defects that can cause pipeline failures Causes of preservice test failures Defects in the pipe body Mechanical damage Fatigue cracks Material defects Longitudinal weld defects Submerged arc...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001810
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... remelting (ESR) or vacuum arc remelting (VAR). However, steel from these secondary refining processes is still required for bearings in high-reliability applications, such as aircraft engines. The bearing industry has used through-hardened material, such as 52100, for ball bearings since early...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.steel.c9001149
EISBN: 978-1-62708-232-7
... made on pieces of COR-TEN removed from the duct and also on virgin samples. Macroscopic examinations of material from the failed duct showed numerous cracks in close proximity to the intermittent welds and arc strikes. Photomicrographs indicated that most of the areas of the fracture surfaces examined...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001813
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... in an arc that causes local melting of the metal being plated. Because the motion of the barrel rapidly moves the spring away from the dangler, the spot of molten metal caused by arcing is quenched instantly by the plating solution and by the mass of the cold metal of the spring. Fatigue fracture...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003520
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... or some other techniques should be used that will not alter the as-received condition. Burning (i.e., oxyacetylene or plasma arc cutting), if used, should be done far enough away from the fracture so that the heat does not alter the conditions. If the fracture is severely altered by corrosion, fire...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006778
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... sufficient to fracture the screws in ductile overload. Example 2: Forming Cracks on Stainless Steel Wire. Cold-drawn 6.4 mm (0.25 in.) diameter type 303 stainless steel wire sections failed during a forming operation. All wires failed at a gradual 90° bend. Investigation High-magnification...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003553
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... improves the resistance of a metal to SCC. For example, cold-drawn steel wire is more resistant to SCC than oil-tempered wire having equal mechanical properties. Also, cold reduction of low-carbon steel to 50% or less of its original thickness makes it relatively immune to cracking in boiling nitrate...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001808
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... inclusions, brittle second-phase particles, weld defects, or arc strikes. Occasionally, brittle fractures are encountered, particularly in low-temperature environments or as a result of impact or a rapidly applied overload. Brittle fracture may thus be attributable to inappropriate choice of material...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003543
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
.... Example 2: Forming Cracks on Stainless Steel Wire Cold-drawn type 303 stainless steel wire sections, 6.4 mm (0.25 in.) in diameter, failed during a forming operation. All of the wires failed at a gradual 90° bend. Investigation High-magnification visual examination disclosed many fine ruptures...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006764
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... Unsharpness Projective Magnification with Microfocus X-Ray Sources Crack/Fracture Corrosion Material Anomalies Arcing Circuit Boards Motor and Transformer Windings Batteries Lithium-Ion Battery Failures Electronic Printed Circuit Board Inspection Integrated-Chip Inspection...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001822
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... a bronze cylinder lined with babbitt metal. Typically, the bronze alloy composition is close to Cu-16Pb-6Sn-3.5Zn, while the babbitt composition is usually Pb-3.5Sn-8-11.5Sb. A window is cut into the bearing and packed with cotton waste, which trails down to an oil reservoir. Oil is drawn up the wick...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006765
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... of commercial-purity titanium was prepared. The specimen was etched with Kroll’s reagent and photographed with Nomarski differential interference contrast illumination. Fig. 11 Light micrograph showing pitting (arrows) after preparation of cold-drawn brass (Cu-20%Zn). Not etched Fig. 12...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003532
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... by the procedure when this specimen of commercial-purity titanium was prepared. The specimen was etched with Kroll's reagent and photographed with Nomarski DIC illumination. Fig. 19 Light micrograph showing pitting (arrows) after preparation of cold-drawn brass (Cu-20%Zn). Not etched Fig. 20...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003524
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... the liquid to be drawn from the cracks or flaws that are open at the surface. The liquid itself is usually a very bright color or contains fluorescent particles that, under ultraviolet light, cause discontinuities in the material to stand out. The main advantages of the liquid-penetrant method are its...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003552
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... tests may be left out or that a competent analyst does not have to collect background data and review the data before conclusions are drawn. The purpose of this section is to help make the best use of the failure analysis resources. People involved in failure analysis are often asked if they can do...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006784
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
.... In a laboratory study of the sulfide stress cracking resistance of submerged arc weldments in a hydrogen-sulfide-saturated aqueous solution of 0.5% acetic acid and 5% sodium chloride, no failures were observed for the welds with hardness values below 191 HB (91 HRB); all of the welds with hardness values of 225...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006779
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
...., Gauss, Weibull, logit, arc sin p ) and the failure probability. Table 2 shows u -values for different failure probabilities for the most often applied Gauss log distribution. Safety span for different failure probabilities (Gauss log distribution) Table 2 Safety span for different...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003548
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... the resistance of the current path in the solution and the external circuit. Thus, if dissimilar pipes are butt welded with the electrolyte flowing through them, the most severe corrosion will occur adjacent to the weld on the anodic member. Effect of Shape The geometry of the circuit elements determines...