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distribution of graphite nodules

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001813
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... distribution of graphite nodules low alloy steel (low alloy steel, general) carbon steel (carbon steel, general) Introduction The formation of graphite nodules can occur in carbon and low alloy steels used in pressure vessels and piping when exposed to high temperature for extended time. When...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001337
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... cracking and creep void formation at the fissure. A nearly continuous band of graphite nodules was observed on the surface of the fissure. In addition to the graphite band formation, the microstructure near the failure exhibited carbide spheroidization from long-term overheating in all the tube regions...
Image
Published: 01 December 2019
Fig. 1 A graphitized medium carbon steel; ( a ) graphite nodule in pearlite, with uniform distribution of cementite particles in pearlite around it; ( b ) same steel overaged—complete graphitization and phases present are ferrite and graphite only More
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.matlhand.c0047312
EISBN: 978-1-62708-224-2
...× Metallographic examination included a section through the fractured surface, including the dark region at the center of the fracture. The structure in the unetched condition shown in Fig. 4 has a spheroidal graphite distribution of an estimated 90% ASTM type I and type II nodules with 150 nodules/mm 2...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.usage.c0047343
EISBN: 978-1-62708-236-5
... with transformation products that were lacy in appearance ( Fig. 5a and b ). The fine distribution of spheroidal graphite interspersed with more massive graphite nodules would be a feature of the original casting rather than a result of operating temperatures. The thermal fatigue cracks in this section were...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001330
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... the fracture lip b of tube 1 ( Fig. 5 ). The microstructure observed at the mid-wall location of the tube 1 b failure and opposite failure a was in a very advanced stage of spheroidization ( Fig. 6 and 7 ). In addition, isolated graphite nodules were also observed in the microstructure. Fig. 5...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.steel.c9001532
EISBN: 978-1-62708-232-7
... the radial cross sections of spalled rolls. These specimens were ground and polished to a scratch-free finish for metallographic observation. Polished and unetched specimens were examined by optical microscopy at magnifications of 500× and 100× to observe the graphite morphology and distribution...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003508
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... completely covers the groove Rat tail D 133 Irregularly distributed depressions of various dimensions extending over the casting surface, usually along the path of metal flow (cast steel) Flow marks, crow's feet D 134 Casting surface entirely pitted or pock-marked Orange peel, metal mold...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006831
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... be revealed by etching to exhibit cell boundaries. Graphite The size, shape, orientation, and distribution of the eutectic graphite particles in castings of gray iron (and ductile and malleable irons) determine the mechanical properties of the castings. For any given gray iron composition, the rate...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006813
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... region can reveal specific local microstructural effects, such as decarburization, alloy depletion, graphitization, or precipitation of embrittling constituents at the failure area. Quality of welded, soldered, or brazed joints, depth of penetration of welds, capillary length of brazed mating surface...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.9781627083294
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003548
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... into a pitting mechanism if the microcells develop enough to produce acidic gradients within the micropits where the graphite nodules lie or are dislodged. The uniform corrosion occurring by the microelectrolytic or galvanic cell in the ductile cast iron is shown in Fig. 8 . Observe the initial stages...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006778
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... images of dimple-rupture fractures. (a) Fracture of low-alloy medium-carbon steel bolt (SAE grade 5). Original magnification: 1750×. (b) Equiaxed tensile dimples originating around the graphite nodules of ASTM 60-45-10 ductile iron. Original magnification: 350×. (c) Parabolic shear dimples in cast Ti-6Al...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006783
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... into a pitting mechanism if the microcells develop enough to produce acidic gradients within the micropits where the graphite nodules lie or are dislodged. Uniform corrosion occurring by the microelectrolytic or galvanic cell in the ductile cast iron is shown in Fig. 8 . Observe the initial stages of micropits...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003543
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... by cleavage in second-phase (silicon) particles and other second phases. Fig. 1 SEM images of dimple-rupture fractures. (a) Fracture of low-alloy medium-carbon steel bolt (SAE grade 5). 1750×. (b) Equiaxed tensile dimples originating around the graphite nodules of ASTM 60-45-10 ductile iron. 350×. (c...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001816
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
...-temperature increase from inlet to outlet of a high-temperature superheater should be uniform across the superheater, differences in inlet temperature will lead to differences in tube metal temperature. The fifth factor is uneven burner adjustments. Uneven flue-gas or oxygen distribution due...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006807
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... into graphite nodules and ferrite under prolonged exposure to elevated temperatures. The nodules may have a random distribution or form a planar array within the microstructure. Planar arrays of nodules, typically found in the heat-affected zone of welds (eyebrow graphitization), can cause severe embrittlement...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006812
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006808
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... porosity, slag inclusions, cracks, incomplete penetration, lack of fusion, and tungsten inclusions. On a radiograph, a pore appears as a round or oval dark spot with or without a rather sharp tail. The spots caused by porosity are often of varying size and distribution. A wormhole appears as a dark...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003540
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... of ductile iron (ASTM 80-55-06), (b) transgranular fracture by cleavage in ductile iron (ASTM 80-55-06), and (c) ductile fracture with equiaxed dimples from microvoid coalescence around graphite nodules in a ductile iron (ASTM 65-40-10). Picture widths are approximately 0.2 mm (0.008 in.) from original...