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distribution of graphite nodules

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001813
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... analysis distribution of graphite nodules low alloy steel (low alloy steel, general) carbon steel (carbon steel, general) Introduction Nucleation and Growth of Graphite Industrial Cases Discussion Conclusions References References 1. Wilson J.G. : Graphitization of steel...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001337
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... of creep cracking and creep void formation at the fissure. A nearly continuous band of graphite nodules was observed on the surface of the fissure. In addition to the graphite band formation, the microstructure near the failure exhibited carbide spheroidization from long-term overheating in all the tube...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.matlhand.c0047312
EISBN: 978-1-62708-224-2
... the dark region at the center of the fracture. The structure in the unetched condition shown in Fig. 4 has a spheroidal graphite distribution of an estimated 90% ASTM type I and type II nodules with 150 nodules/mm 2 . The matrix microstructure was predominantly ferritic with 3 to 5% pearlite ( Fig. 5a...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.matlhand.c0047312
EISBN: 978-1-62708-224-2
... a spheroidal graphite distribution of an estimated 90% ASTM type I and type II nodules with 150 nodules/mm 2 . The matrix microstructure was predominantly ferritic with 3 to 5% pearlite ( Fig. 5a to c ). The darkened region toward the center exhibited a curved profile, as shown in these photomicrographs...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.usage.c0047343
EISBN: 978-1-62708-236-5
.... 100x The thin edge of the rotor adjacent to the gas passage exhibited a ferritic matrix with transformation products that were lacy in appearance ( Fig. 5a and b ). The fine distribution of spheroidal graphite interspersed with more massive graphite nodules would be a feature of the original...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003508
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... completely covers the groove Rat tail D 133 Irregularly distributed depressions of various dimensions extending over the casting surface, usually along the path of metal flow (cast steel) Flow marks, crow's feet D 134 Casting surface entirely pitted or pock-marked Orange peel, metal mold...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001330
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... 580 °C (1075 °F). A spheroidized microstructure with graphite nodules indicated that tube 1 was operating at a temperature significantly above its oxidation limit and below its lower transformation temperature of 727 °C (1340 °F) for an extended period of time. Transformation products...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.steel.c9001532
EISBN: 978-1-62708-232-7
... to a scratch-free finish for metallographic observation. Polished and unetched specimens were examined by optical microscopy at magnifications of 500× and 100× to observe the graphite morphology and distribution, respectively. The unetched roll specimens were also observed for non-metallic inclusions (NMI...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006831
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... edges. (b) Drag side, with fewer raised areas and almost no broken-open surface. Original magnification of both: 50× Fig. 25 Longitudinal sections from the main-bearing journal. (a) From the cope side. (b) From the drag side. Note the more numerous graphite nodules and the clustering...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.9781627083294
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006812
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006813
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... crack location. Source: Ref 14 Fig. 34 Weld crack. Source: Ref 14 Fig. 35 Shell-and-tube heat exchanger and location of leak points. Source: Ref 15 Fig. 36 Distribution of failed tubes and location of specimens. (a) Failed tube distribution. (b) Specimen location...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006807
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... displays tertiary creep, loss of creep resistance locally leads to reduction of stress and redistribution of load carrying onto adjacent material. Failure occurs only when the strength loss has distributed over a sufficient volume that the remaining structure is no longer able to support the external load...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003548
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... into a pitting mechanism if the microcells develop enough to produce acidic gradients within the micropits where the graphite nodules lie or are dislodged. The uniform corrosion occurring by the microelectrolytic or galvanic cell in the ductile cast iron is shown in Fig. 8 . Observe the initial stages...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001816
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
...-temperature increase from inlet to outlet of a high-temperature superheater should be uniform across the superheater, differences in inlet temperature will lead to differences in tube metal temperature. The fifth factor is uneven burner adjustments. Uneven flue-gas or oxygen distribution due...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006783
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... into a pitting mechanism if the microcells develop enough to produce acidic gradients within the micropits where the graphite nodules lie or are dislodged. Uniform corrosion occurring by the microelectrolytic or galvanic cell in the ductile cast iron is shown in Fig. 8 . Observe the initial stages of micropits...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006808
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... , Silveira T.F. da , and Cunha Furtado H. , Graphitization in Low Alloy Steel Pressure Vessels and Piping , J. Fail. Anal. Prevent. , Vol 11 , 2011 , p 3 – 9 10.1007/s11668-010-9414-z 76. Foulds J.R. and Viswanathan R. , “ Graphitization of Steels in Elevated-Temperature...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003543
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... by cleavage in second-phase (silicon) particles and other second phases. Fig. 1 SEM images of dimple-rupture fractures. (a) Fracture of low-alloy medium-carbon steel bolt (SAE grade 5). 1750×. (b) Equiaxed tensile dimples originating around the graphite nodules of ASTM 60-45-10 ductile iron. 350×. (c...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006778
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... images of dimple-rupture fractures. (a) Fracture of low-alloy medium-carbon steel bolt (SAE grade 5). Original magnification: 1750×. (b) Equiaxed tensile dimples originating around the graphite nodules of ASTM 60-45-10 ductile iron. Original magnification: 350×. (c) Parabolic shear dimples in cast Ti-6Al...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003540
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... of (a) IG fracture in ion-nitrided layer of ductile iron (ASTM 80-55-06), (b) transgranular fracture by cleavage in ductile iron (ASTM 80-55-06), and (c) ductile fracture with equiaxed dimples from microvoid coalescence around graphite nodules in a ductile iron (ASTM 65-40-10). Picture widths...