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dispersion hardening

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Published: 01 December 1993
Fig. 12 Microstructure of the case-hardened gear teeth, consisting of martensite and dispersed carbides along with a few manganese sulfide inclusions. The average hardness is 55 HRC. Nital etchant. (a) 154×(b) 616× More
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Published: 15 January 2021
Fig. 7 Precipitate in a precipitation-hardened (PH) steel fracture surface, labeled as Spectrum 1, and energy-dispersive spectroscopy spectrum from the corresponding point showing nearby steel constituents (iron, chromium, nickel, and copper) that are detected. According to the quantitative More
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001300
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... inclusions, typical of AISI 4140 in the quenched-and-tempered condition. The microstructure in the case-hardened region of the gear tooth, shown in Fig. 12 , consists of martensite and dispersed carbides, with a few scattered manganese sulfide inclusions. Fig. 11 Gear core microstructure consisting...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.design.c9001259
EISBN: 978-1-62708-233-4
... to overheating and lower hardenability as a consequence of the presence of finely dispersed undissolved aluminum nitrides which act as deterrent to grain growth. Cross sections were cut of all wire sections for metallographic analysis. All showed annealed structures. In the structure of the wires of shipment...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.steel.c9001535
EISBN: 978-1-62708-232-7
... wt% (max) Mo, 0.80 wt% (max) V, and 1.80 wt% (max) W. These rolls are supplied in a forged and hardened condition with a specified surface hardness in the range of 72 to 82° shore C (50.5 to 56.3 HRC). 3. Metallurgical Investigation Fragmented samples from the broken roll were extensively...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001761
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... electron microscope (SEM) equipped with electron-dispersive X-ray analysis (EDAX). Microhardness gradient through the nitrided layer close to fracture, surface hardness, and macrohardness at the journals were all measured. Fractographic analysis indicated that fatigue was the dominant mechanism of failure...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001757
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... through the 17th compressor stages, as were stator vanes and casing sections. The fractured surface of the 17th blade showed multiple origins along with secondary cracking and extensive propagation that preceded separation. The metallographic analysis of the microstructure suggested work hardening. Based...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006816
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... that cause a part to fail during heat treatment. The article discusses the problems associated with heating and furnaces, quenching media, quenching stresses, hardenability, tempering, carburizing, carbonitriding, and nitriding as well as potential stainless steel problems and problems associated...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001849
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
.... The rolls are properly heat treated and/or surface hardened in order to withstand the demanding working environments. Repeated loading under bending and compressive stresses, severe friction and wear under corrosive environments and at high temperatures and strain rates are some of the most frequently met...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001293
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... of the fracture surface failed in an intergranular fashion. Energy dispersive spectroscopy determined that deposits of sand, corrosion and salts were found within the pits. The failure started by hydrogen charging as a result of corrosion, and was aggravated by the stress concentration effects of pitting...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001753
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... as the presence of shrinkage voids. As an age-hardenable aluminum alloy, the aluminum matrix will have precipitated intermetallic phases dispersed throughout; these phases will appear gray and black, as seen in Fig. 7 , according to a comparative microstructure which was etched by Keller’s reagent [ 4...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.rail.c9001659
EISBN: 978-1-62708-231-0
... as a perturbation from the shell crack under cyclic loading and is constrained to develop as an embedded flaw in the early stages of growth because the crack is impeded at the gage side and surface of the rail head by compressive longitudinal stresses. Energy-dispersive x-ray analysis Rails (railroad) Shell...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001122
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... was conducted using optical microscope. Chemical composition of the hammerhead was determined by emission spectrometry. The chemical compositions of the chip and hammer head were compared using energy-dispersive analysis. Microhardness versus distance from the striking face was also determined. The hammerhead...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006548
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... modulus or modulus of elasticity; energy E elastic or storage modulus E viscous or loss modulus EAC environmentally assisted cracking EBSP electron backscattered pattern ECT equicohesive temperature EDM electric discharge machining EDS energy dispersive spectroscopy EDX energy-dispersive x-ray (analysis...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.9781627081801
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001908
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
.... The Investigation At ARL, the two tailcones were subject to visual and radiographic inspection, chemical analysis, metallographic examination, hardness testing, tensile testing and scanning electron microscopy, and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. Visual examination revealed the presence of “heat...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.usage.c9001597
EISBN: 978-1-62708-236-5
... the steel, forging the shape, and preliminary heat treatment; and (3) a supplier that provided induction hardening, finish machining, and inspection. An independent engineering firm was subsequently involved, but because each party had its own agenda, there was no agreement on the metallurgical source...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001795
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... steel) UNS G52986 Background History High debris count was detected in the magnetic chip detector (MCD) of a jet engine of a military aircraft. Compositional analysis carried out in the laboratory using energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDX) attached to scanning electron microscope (SEM...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006759
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... typical for the material. The data were used to determine that the composition and metallurgy of the PH steel were adequate and in this case had not contributed to failure. Fig. 7 Precipitate in a precipitation-hardened (PH) steel fracture surface, labeled as Spectrum 1, and energy-dispersive...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001294
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... Abstract A precipitation-hardened stainless steel poppet valve assembly used to shut off the flow of hydrazine fuel to an auxiliary power unit was found to leak. SEM and optical micrographs revealed that the final heat treatment designed for the AM-350 bellows material rendered the AM-355...