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discrete element method

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006803
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
..., and the most frequently used simulation methods, standard Monte Carlo sampling, Latin hypercube sampling, and discrete probability distribution sampling. Further, the article discusses methods developed to analyze the results of probabilistic methods and covers the use of epistemic and aleatory sampling...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001851
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... Ω m t where I z is the mass moment of inertia of the receptor shaft, and B 2n = 2nA 2n . Equation of Motion The receptor shaft may be isolated and discretized by finite element methods, and the governing equations of each component in the receptor shaft may also be derived...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006936
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... Abstract Of the many different nondestructive evaluation (NDE) techniques, ultrasonic inspection continues to be the leading nondestructive method for inspecting composite materials, because measurements can be quantitative and the typical defect geometries and orientations lend themselves...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001595
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... modification through heat treatment is hardenability. Hardenability is a term used to quantify the relative response of a material to thermal treatment transformation to martensite based upon alloying elements and other variables. Many researchers have empirically determined the individual and combined effects...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001004
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... sampling method, represents an attractive approach to the toughness assessment of critical power plant components. Grain boundaries Phosphorus Segregation Stream turbines Studs Temper embrittlement 1CrMoV Creep fracture/stress rupture Introduction During a routine maintenance overhaul...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.9781627082952
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003526
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... technique that allows numerical solutions to be obtained for complex mathematical and engineering problems. It is a technique that relies on creating a geometric mathematical model of the structure out of discrete or finite numbers of individual nodes and elements. Displacement functions are assumed...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006773
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
.... It is a technique that relies on creating a geometric mathematical model of the structure out of discrete or finite numbers of individual nodes and elements. Displacement functions are assumed that allow displacements throughout the elements to be evaluated. Once a discrete-element model has been created...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003514
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... element. Examples of the use of probabilistic analysis are presented. The article concludes with an overview of some of the commercially available software programs for performing probabilistic analysis. advanced mean value method failure model first-second-order reliability methods Monte Carlo...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006933
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... with charged particles, which is characteristic of the atomic structure of an element. Given the elemental nature of the results, EDS has utility for the analysis of inorganic materials, and it is also useful in the evaluation of organic constituents. Method Energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy analyses...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006764
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... with discussion about the concept of the probability of detection (POD), on which the statistical reliability of crack detection is based. The coverage includes the various methods of surface inspection, including visual-examination tools, scanning technology in dimensional metrology, and the common methods...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006941
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... to anticipating their time-dependent response to an applied force. Both a theoretical approach based on spring and dashpot models (i.e., if in series, the Maxwell model, and if in parallel, the Voight model), as well as empirical methods, can be used to describe the time- and temperature-dependent viscoelastic...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006767
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... volume into small elements (normally tetrahedra or hexahedra), BEA only discretizes the boundary. Both methods, however, employ continuum material models and produce only approximations. In general, accuracy improves as the number of elements increases. Convergence techniques are generally employed...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003522
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... method of illumination. Figure 9 shows a view of the fracture surface of a tensile test specimen from a cast steel that has suffered embrittlement, resulting in a “rock candy” fracture. Fig. 9 Low-power light microscope view of a “rock candy” fracture in a tensile specimen taken from a cast...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006757
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... often results in a suppression of the surface features that are desired. Flexible fiber-optic lighting is often the most appropriate method of illumination. Figure 9 shows a view of the fracture surface of a tensile test specimen from a cast steel that has suffered embrittlement, resulting in a “rock...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001081
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... striation spacing measurements of long bolt hole crack. An important observation concerning the fracture surfaces was the tendency for a banded or recurring striation pattern to form, as indicated by arrows in Fig. 7 . This recurring striation pattern consisted of discrete regions of finely spaced...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003530
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
..., or time-varying boundary data may be present. These require the use of numerical procedures such as finite-element analysis (FEA) or boundary-element analysis (BEA). While FEA discretizes the entire volume into small elements (normally tetrahedra or hexahedra), BEA only discretizes the boundary. Both...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003536
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... that are based on fracture profilometry. This is followed by a section describing the methods based on scanning electron microscope fractography. The article also addresses procedures for three-dimensional fracture surface reconstruction. In each case, sufficient methodological details, governing equations...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.petrol.c9001638
EISBN: 978-1-62708-228-0
.... Requirements for Chemical Composition of UNS N08810 and Results Obtained for the Transfer Line Table 1 Requirements for Chemical Composition of UNS N08810 and Results Obtained for the Transfer Line Element N08810 Transfer line Nickel 30.0–35.0 31.2 Chromium 19.0–23.0 19.6 Iron 39.5...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006943
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
.... Scanning electron microscopy instruments combined with an energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) attachment (also referred to as EDX) allow the elemental chemical analysis of plastic materials. The EDS analysis with an SEM instrument can produce additional information for the plastic surfaces. The SEM...