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directed-energy fusion welding

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.petrol.c9001603
EISBN: 978-1-62708-228-0
... of the fusion zone revealed a distinct ferrite band across the through-thickness direction of the weld joint. Crack initiation and propagation occurred exclusively through the ferrite bands. Extensive decarburization within the fusion zone may have led to the formation of the ferrite band. The pearlite...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006838
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... main types of metal AM processes: powder-bed fusion (PBF) and directed-energy deposition (DED). These two types of metal AM technology are fusion-based processes with similarities to fusion welding ( Ref 9 ) or, in some cases, a cross between welding and cast product ( Ref 10 ). The metallurgical...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003509
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... cracks, root cracks, lamellar tearing, delaminations, and fusion-line cracks. Transverse cracks in weld metal (No. 2, Fig. 3 ) are formed when the predominant contraction stresses are in the direction of the weld axis. Transverse cracks lie in a plane normal to the axis of the weld and are usually...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001661
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... is observed, the examination may be repeated for further evaluation by optimizing the magnetic flux density and field direction relative to the orientation of the indication. The examination results are summarized in Table 1 ; all of the field welds with magnetic test (MT) indications had been previously...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001682
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... microcracks were caused by liquation in the HAZ of the autogenous GTAW seam weld, and are defined as HAZ liquation cracks [ 1 ]. The grain morphology in the weld fusion zone was typical of a procedure utilizing a “high” welding speed and producing a teardrop-shaped weld pool [ 2 ], Figure 6 . Large grains...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006808
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... of the weld image. Ultrasonic Testing In ultrasonic testing, a beam of ultrasonic energy (i.e., nonaudible sound) is directed into a specimen, and either the energy transmitted through the specimen is measured or the energy reflected from interfaces is indicated (see the article “ Fundamentals...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006822
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... Electric resistance weld flaws Flash weld flaws Furnace butt weld flaws Hook cracks Cold welds Incomplete fusion Stitching Inclusions Shielded metal arc welding flaws Gas metal arc welding flaws Submerged arc welding flaws Misalignment Porosity Incomplete fusion Incomplete...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001304
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... Representative transverse sections of diffuser intake subassembly. (a) Fracture through fusion boundary with type 310 stainless steel. (b) Fracture through welds. (c) Fracture through Corten. Fig. 6 Transverse section of weld between intake flange (left) and diffuser cone (right). Large arrow indicates...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001777
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... “B” was transverse to the rolling direction Fig. 7 Transverse view of the weld connecting the flange to the RHS showing the fractured part of the joint, close to the oxidized surface (region A). Defects like lack of fusion, lack of penetration, and porosities were observed Fig. 2...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001770
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... were observed in the WM and were perpendicular to the welding direction ( Fig. 5a ). Transgranular cracking was primarily along the dendrites whereas the branches of cracks were found initiating from the dendrite arms as seen in Fig. 5(a) . Figure 5(b) shows the typical fusion boundary (transition...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.bldgs.c9001618
EISBN: 978-1-62708-219-8
... microscopy was performed on cracked samples from both arms. Figure 8 shows the weld fusion zone, heat-affected zone (HAZ), and base microstructure of the thin arm #98. Figure 8 clearly shows the crack position relative to the weld fusion zone and arm. The diamond shapes are indentor penetrations...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001840
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... as main welding parameters to vary impact velocity and consequently impact energy. Details of the selected cladding conditions are listed in Table 3 . In order to measure the impact velocity of flyer plate, the following equation proposed by Vaidyanathan et al. [ 9 ] was utilized as an estimation (Eq 1...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001124
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... in an undesirable transverse direction. The fractures/cracks consistently appeared along the fusion zone. The fracture morphology and presence of intergranular corrosion suggest that corrosion was a contributory factor in crack initiation and propagation. The absence of corrosion elsewhere in the wire may...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001820
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... with schematic of resulting chevron pattern. Arrows indicate fracture-propagation direction. A propagating ductile-fracture surface is shown in Fig. 2(a) . Under gaseous pressurization due to the excessive stored energy, these fractures can also propagate long distances. Under liquid pressurization, both...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006814
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
..., whether on a global or a local level. Global geometric changes have been discussed and are illustrated in Fig. 2 to 6 . While direct-welded splices do not involve global changes, there may be local geometric features associated with the weld, such as weld toes and roots ( Fig. 8a ). For built-up...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001594
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
....) These failures are described as follows. Seven failures (about 54%) initiated in the root of the socket weld joint. The driving force was either pressure pulsation of the fluid or external vibrations. About 30% of these failures had evidence of a lack of fusion or inadequate penetration. The remainder...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c0048801
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... revealed a number of factors that may have played a role in the failure. In the design of the system, the original material specified was ASTM A155 fusion-welded pipe that had been substituted with SA387, grade C, plate, rolled and welded with filler metal added. At the time of the design of the system...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001710
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... . There appeared to be no significant degradation of the welds and connecting base metal by corrosion as seen in Figure 7 . Further analysis of the weld interfaces indicated some lack of fusion in a few welds, but this was not typical. This lack of fusion was minimal and the fusion interface was adequate...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001561
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
...-affected zone. The pipe was then longitudinally sectioned and the inside surface visually inspected. The inside of the pipe contained a crack 5.5″ long running parallel to the girth weld for half its length, with its direction varying into the counterbore at its terminal ends ( Figure 2 ). The inside...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001536
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... penetrated a weld. Weld metal is generally considered to be highly resistant to the propagation of IGSCC. The other microstructural feature noted in the optical metallography was the presence of pronounced banding of delta ferrite along the axial direction of the forged elbow and wedge material...