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direct-forge quenching

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001270
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... more cracking than aluminum-grain-refined material or the alloy grain refined using 0.06% V. Mismatch during forging caused material to flow in the wrong directions during both the forging operation and the trimming operation ( Fig. 4 ). At the trimming temperature (approximately 1100 °C, or 2000...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001308
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... residual stresses from welding, acting in conjunction with existing residual stresses, caused the crack to propagate across the remaining flange area. The direction of crack propagation was from the tip of the quench crack at the bottom surface across the interior of the rail flange. The through-flange...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003510
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... elapsed times of 2 and 50 h, with measured values on the surface. These results show that the stresses in all directions decrease with elapsed time in tempering. Fig. 16 Stress distribution in a cylinder after quenching Fig. 17 Stress distribution in a cylinder after tempering. (a) t...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003507
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... of metalworking operations that can be roughly divided into bulk-working operations and sheet-forming operations ( Ref 1 ). The general distinction here is that bulk working imposes material flow in all directions, while sheet-forming operations are typically limited to two-dimensional deformation. Metalworking...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c0047161
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... of the shaft cross section revealed that the crack was approximately 0.5 mm (0.020 in.) deep and oriented in a radial direction. Furthermore, no stringer-type nonmetallic inclusions were observed in the vicinity of the flaw, which did not display the intergranular characteristics of a quench crack. The defect...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.matlhand.c0089766
EISBN: 978-1-62708-224-2
... metal showed that it met specification requirements. Examination of a metallographic specimen from the fracture area revealed a banded structure in the direction of rolling and aluminum oxide stringers at the fillet surface, which undoubtedly served as stress raisers, in the direction of crack extension...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001022
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... to reduce the anisotropy of the material so that the resistance to stress corrosion would be similar in all directions. Extruded material of this composition is known to be very anisotropic with respect to stress-corrosion resistance, being best in the longitudinal direction and worst in the short...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001353
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
.... The valve was used for reversing the flow direction of seawater in the cooling system of a condenser. Visual examination of the flap showed crystalline fracture, indicating a brittle failure. Metallographic examination, chemical analyses, and tensile and impact testing indicated that the failure was caused...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001557
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... the material used was alloy steel (0.34%C, 1%Cr, 1.9%Mn, 1%Si). Chapry impact properties determined in the locations both near and away from the defective zone in the longitudinal and transverse directions were found generally low (i.e. 4.5 & 3.5 kg.M/cm 2 restpectively against the specification...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c9001731
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
... lugs. The origin was in the parting line of the forging and followed the parting line upward for a distance of about 2 1 2 ft and then turned into a circumferential direction, breaking the cylinder into 2 pieces. Fig. 5 Failed shock-strut cylinder. Fracture started at arrow...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c0046870
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
.... (a) View of a portion of the shaft showing the location of the corrosion-fatigue crack on the tapered interior of the shank. Dimensions given in inches, (b) Light fractograph showing fracture origins at corrosion pits (arrows O) and direction of fast fracture (arrows R). 4 1 2 x. Region where...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001446
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
.... It was concluded that failure of this vessel resulted from the development of a radial crack orientated in the axial direction. This appeared to have originated on the bore surface in a region where the laminar defect closely approached this surface. The defect was introduced during the manufacture of the vessel...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006835
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... Cross section of a forged bar showing a forging burst. The burst is located approximately at the centerline of the workpiece. Arrow indicates the direction of working. Dimensional Imperfections Unique to Forging Because of the nature of impression die forging, poorly maintained forging cells...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001814
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... martensite and unstable retained austenite, often fail by quench cracking. Figure 16(a) shows a 44-cm (17 1 2 -in.) OD × 33-cm (13-in.) ID × 5-cm (2-in.) thick ring forging made of AISI O1 tool steel that cracked during quenching. Temper color was present on the crack surface. The interior...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006818
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... in.) thick ring forging made of AISI O1 tool steel that cracked during quenching. Temper color was present on the crack surface. The interior microstructure ( Fig. 16b ) revealed an overaustenitized condition, coarse plate martensite, and retained austenite (white). The hardness was 61 to 62 HRC. A section...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006816
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... occur during the pouring of molten metal into a casting the mold. They become elongated during rolling and are usually subsurface in the bar, showing a lamellar structure of inclusions, which is seen in the longitudinal or rolling direction. The inclusions can be oxide in nature, or they can be from...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001642
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... was planned. As mentioned in the last case study, direct observation often provides new insights, especially to a consultant/analyst. Generally, consultants and analysts are called to investigate a problem because of their expertise and experience. Additionally, outside experts may notice details that people...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c0048795
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... The cylindrical shell sections were hot formed so that the rolling direction of the plates was perpendicular to the axis of the vessel. All plates were supplied in the normalized-and-tempered condition. The forgings were annealed, normalized, and tempered at 645 °C (1195 °F) to obtain the desired mechanical...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001811
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... Abstract This article focuses on the mechanisms and common causes of failure of metal components in lifting equipment in the following three categories: cranes and bridges, particularly those for outdoor and other low-temperature service; attachments used for direct lifting, such as hooks...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001808
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... Abstract This article discusses failures in shafts such as connecting rods, which translate rotary motion to linear motion, and in piston rods, which translate the action of fluid power to linear motion. It describes the process of examining a failed shaft to guide the direction of failure...