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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001351
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... reactors Leakage Marine environments Nuclear reactor components, corrosion Pitting (corrosion) Welded joints, corrosion Weldments, corrosion 347 UNS S34700 Stress-corrosion cracking Background A number of AISI 347 stainless steel bellows intended for use in the control rod drive mechanism...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.usage.c9001249
EISBN: 978-1-62708-236-5
... fault and the drive shaft came into direct contact with the internal wall of the flange. On fracture, the flange fell into several pieces ( Fig. 1 ). Large cracks were observed on the individual sections originating on the inner side of the flange ( Fig. 2 ). The fracture surfaces were coated...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.design.c9001424
EISBN: 978-1-62708-233-4
... case the machine was a 200 kW alternator, direct-driven by a diesel engine running at 750 rpm. Both the foregoing failures reveal the same basic weakness, i.e., insufficient rigidity when subjected to variations or reversals of torque. In the first case, the bars welded to the arms were inadequately...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.conag.c9001442
EISBN: 978-1-62708-221-1
... attached to the back driving plate and the front or eye plate by double fillet welds. Examination of several of the pieces of the disrupted impeller — not all were recovered — indicated that the majority of the vanes had become detached where they were welded to the plates, in the manner seen...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001594
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
....) These failures are described as follows. Seven failures (about 54%) initiated in the root of the socket weld joint. The driving force was either pressure pulsation of the fluid or external vibrations. About 30% of these failures had evidence of a lack of fusion or inadequate penetration. The remainder...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.marine.c0091394
EISBN: 978-1-62708-227-3
... stainless steel, schedule 40, 64 mm (2.5 in.) diam and larger pipe was used. Pitting Damage: Observed through pipe wall directed from interior to exterior. Most pits were leaking in the HAZ at the weld joints. Some pitting was found midlength at the bottom of the pipe. Environment: Stagnant...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001308
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... the crack to propagate across the remaining flange area. The direction of crack propagation was from the tip of the quench crack at the bottom surface across the interior of the rail flange. The through-flange crack then propagated down to the rail web until the crack-driving stresses (residual stresses...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001808
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
..., as well as how their alignment may be affected by deflections or distortions that can occur as a result of mechanical loads, shock, vibrations, or thermal gradients, should be considered. The method of connecting the driving or driven member to the shaft, such as press fitting, welding, or use...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.petrol.c9001603
EISBN: 978-1-62708-228-0
... of the fusion zone revealed a distinct ferrite band across the through-thickness direction of the weld joint. Crack initiation and propagation occurred exclusively through the ferrite bands. Extensive decarburization within the fusion zone may have led to the formation of the ferrite band. The pearlite...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006820
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... factors, a situation that can have a major influence on gear tooth stress is the torsional vibration in the gear train. Figure 14 shows the drive gear from an oil field gas engine. An inspection readily finds wear on both sides of the gear teeth, yet the engine only runs in one direction. The wear...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001820
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... (1000 psi) and are made of steel pipes welded or mechanically coupled together. Since the 1940s, all of the lines have been assembled by welding. The third type of pipeline is a gas-distribution line that mainly transports natural gas within cities at pressures that vary from several tens of pounds per...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c0047879
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
..., grade 2 steel, and the larger-diam section was covered with a type 316 stainless steel end cap. The cap was welded to each end using type ER316 stainless steel filler metal. The forged steel shaft was revealed to have fractured at approximately 90 deg to the shaft axis in the weld metal...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006810
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... of mechanical loads, shock, vibrations, or thermal gradients, should be considered. The method of connecting the driving or driven member to the shaft, such as interference fitting, welding, or use of a threaded connection, a set screw, or a keyway, can influence failure. It is also important if power...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006822
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... be driven by residual stresses, bending stresses, mechanical damage, soil movement, thermal expansion, or a combination of factors. With larger ruptures, flaps may be created (as a result of the rupture itself) where bending stresses can drive cracks in directions not aligned with the longitudinal pipe axis...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001536
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... penetrated a weld. Weld metal is generally considered to be highly resistant to the propagation of IGSCC. The other microstructural feature noted in the optical metallography was the presence of pronounced banding of delta ferrite along the axial direction of the forged elbow and wedge material...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.bldgs.c9001528
EISBN: 978-1-62708-219-8
... [approximately 1.5 × 2.4 m (5 × 8 ft)] wrapped lengthwise around the circumference and welded together. The hot water inlet is at the top of each tank and the outlet is at the bottom. The outside of each tank is wrapped with one-inch thick black insulating foam. City water flows through the direct contact...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006814
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
...: the time of occurrence (during manufacturing or in service), and the driving force (internal or external stresses). This article uses the term welded connection in contrast to the simpler term weld for deliberate reasons. A weld is a localized coalescence of metals or nonmetals produced either...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001815
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... mating teeth resembles that of two cones rolling on each other (see Fig. 7 for angles and terminology). The use of straight bevel gears is generally limited to drives that operate at low speeds and where noise is not important. If the speeds are to remain the same with only a 90° change of direction...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.matlhand.c9001549
EISBN: 978-1-62708-224-2
... Abstract Crane collapse due to bolt fatigue and fatigue failure of a crane support column, crane tower, overhead yard crane, hoist rope, and overhead crane drive shaft are described. The first four examples relate to the structural integrity of cranes. However, equipment such as drive and hoist...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006808
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... rectangle if its long axis is perpendicular to the radiation beam, and it appears as two concentric circles (one darker than the other) if the long axis is parallel to the beam. Linear porosity is recorded on radiographs as a series of round dark spots along a line parallel to the direction of welding...