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direct-drive friction welding

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Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001808
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
..., as well as how their alignment may be affected by deflections or distortions that can occur as a result of mechanical loads, shock, vibrations, or thermal gradients, should be considered. The method of connecting the driving or driven member to the shaft, such as press fitting, welding, or use...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.usage.c9001249
EISBN: 978-1-62708-236-5
... fault and the drive shaft came into direct contact with the internal wall of the flange. On fracture, the flange fell into several pieces ( Fig. 1 ). Large cracks were observed on the individual sections originating on the inner side of the flange ( Fig. 2 ). The fracture surfaces were coated...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001847
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... that the foreign load leading to fracture of the sleeve is tangential stress. In terms of the rotation of the main shaft and the driving and driven relation of the main shaft and the bearing sleeve, the friction force between the bearing bush and the cylinder surface of the bearing sleeve, the friction force...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001822
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... microprobe using a region of copper penetration shown in Fig. 16 and 17 . All 270× Fig. 4 Hot acid etched longitudinal centerline section from the drive-wheel side of axle 1611. Fig. 5 Hot acid etched longitudinal centerline section from the commutator side of axle 1611. Fig. 6...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001815
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... mating teeth resembles that of two cones rolling on each other (see Fig. 7 for angles and terminology). The use of straight bevel gears is generally limited to drives that operate at low speeds and where noise is not important. If the speeds are to remain the same with only a 90° change of direction...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003520
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... has encountered cases where the fracture face was destroyed, yet a valid failure analysis study could be obtained. As an example, the author studied an Auto Train locomotive drive axle ( Ref 2 ) that failed due to overheating of the friction bearing. 3 The train was approaching a city, and no power...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001820
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... fracture and, upon crossing a girth weld, turned to shear and arrested. In the other direction, the fracture propagated through portions of three lengths as a cleavage fracture. It suddenly turned to tearing shear in the middle of a pipe length and arrested by spiraling around the circumference. Figure 25...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006791
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
...-scanning test is conducted with two cylindrical specimens positioned in a cross-relative layout, that is, with the axes in perpendicular directions ( Fig. 18 ). In this method, the upper vertically loaded cylinder (normally representing the tool material) is stationary, and the lower cylinder (representing...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c9001713
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... for the oxidation of the aluminum powder. The direct oxidation of the hot aluminum powder by oxygen ( Eq. 6 ), however, likely occurred when the contents of the blender contacted air. 2 (Eq 4) 4 A l + 3 S O 2 → 2 A l 2 O 3 + 3 S (Eq 5) 2 A l + N a 2 S 2 O...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001810
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... can result in loading that differs considerably, both in magnitude and direction, from that anticipated by the designer. Determination of such abnormal conditions by inspection of the location and distribution of damage on bearing components is often helpful. Most types of damage to ball bearings...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003524
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... the direction of the failure analyst. A field failure report sheet or checklist can be used to ensure that all pertinent information regarding the failure is recorded. There also are situations where it is essential to perform failure analyses on the site. While it is recommended that examination be done...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006779
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... restricts the application to the onset of brittle fracture and the subcritical cyclic crack growth in brittle and ductile structures. The stress-intensity factor, K , uniquely characterizes the elastic stress field near a crack and represents the crack-driving force. The stress-intensity factor depends...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003562
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... at a rivet hole Turbines, both steam and gas, operate under conditions that subject these components to fretting damage. There are three main sites: The point at which the turbine disk is either shrink fitted onto the driving shaft or attached to the shaft by means of a bolted flange...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003556
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... for the wormhole pitting of carbon steel piping used to transport a slurry of magnesium hydroxide and alumina at pH 10.5 ( Ref 17 ). Whatever the environmental conditions, microorganisms need water, a source of energy to drive their metabolism, and nutrients to provide essential building materials (carbon...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006829
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... with permission from P.J. Kennedy, M.B. Peterson, and L. Stallings, An Evaluation of Fretting at Small Slip Amplitudes, Materials Evaluation under Fretting Conditions , STP 780, American Society for Testing and Materials, 1982, p 30–48, copyright ASTM International, 100 Barr Harbor Drive, West Conshohocken, PA...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003544
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... field at the crack tip in terms of stress intensity ( K ) in linear elastic fracture mechanics. The crack-tip stress-intensity factor, K , uniquely characterizes the elastic stress field near a crack and represents the crack driving force that controls the onset of brittle fracture and the rate...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003565
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... with a NBD-200 silicon nitride ball. Source: Ref 33 Fig. 18 Impact crater area vs. compressive residual stress for impacts normal to the lay and compressive stresses perpendicular to the grinding direction (○), and for impacts perpendicular to the lay and compressive stresses parallel...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003500
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... in a direction other than longitudinal. Design-caused failures include inappropriate geometries (as defined on the engineering drawing), which may lead to a compromise of component or system capabilities. Examples of inappropriate geometries include improper joint preparation for welding or brazing...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006793
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... the sliding direction. Observations were also made that indicate: Debris stems from both specimen and counterface materials. Metallic particles consist of small and/or distorted primary crystals. Oxide formation occurs. Phase transformation of the metallic constituents may occur...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001812
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... of the oxide coating. This heavy oxide coating and the longitudinal direction of the crack indicated that a seam was present in the bolt bar stock. Hot heading had disrupted the linear direction of the seam in the bolt-head areas so that the crack branched in a circumferential direction. Installation...