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direct visual inspection

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.marine.c0091669
EISBN: 978-1-62708-227-3
... near the seacoast. A complete check was then made, both visually and with the aid of a low-power magnifying glass, of all coupling nuts of this type on the missile. Investigation (visual inspection, spectrographic and chemical analysis, and metallographic examination) supported the conclusion...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c0047125
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
... of landings nor the roll mileage was reported, but about 300 days had elapsed between the date of manufacture and the date the wheel was removed from service. The analysis (visual inspection, macrographs, micrographs, electron microprobe) supported the conclusions that the wheel half failed by fatigue...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.mech.c0047105
EISBN: 978-1-62708-225-9
... to be propelled forcefully in the direction of the load, causing substantial damage to other machinery components in the vicinity. The failed component, which was 43 cm (17 in.) in diameter, was machined from 4140 plate and heat treated to 34 to 36 HRC. Analysis (visual inspection, composite micrographs, scanning...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c0047856
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
... revealed by visual examination. The cracks were originated as circumferential cracks and then propagated transversely into the bearing-bore wall. No inclusions in the master rod were detected by magnetic-particle and x-ray inspection. Three large inclusions lying approximately parallel to the grain...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c9001575
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
...Abstract Abstract An oil scavenge pump was found to have failed when a protective shear neck fractured during the start of a jet engine. Visual inspection revealed that the driven gear in one of the bearing compartments was frozen as was the corresponding drive gear. Spacer wear and thermal...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c0091362
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... and measured 1.5 m (58 in.) in diameter and 8.5 m (28 ft) in length. Investigation (visual inspection, chemical analysis, radiography, dye-penetrant inspection, and hydrostatic testing of all E-Brite welds, 4x images, 100x/200x images electrolytically etched with 10% oxalic acid, and V-notch Charpy testing...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c0048850
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
...Abstract Abstract Cracks on the outer surface near a hanger lug were revealed by visual inspection of a type 316 stainless steel main steam line of a major utility boiler system. Cracking was found to have initiated at the outside of the pipe wall or immediately beneath the surface...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c0091318
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
.... Investigation (visual inspection, 95x unetched images, chemical testing with a 5% salt spray, chemical testing with sodium hypochlorite at three strength levels, samples were also pickled in an aqueous solution containing 15 vol% concentrated nitric acid (HNO3) and 3 vol% concentrated hydrofluoric acid (HF...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006764
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... (a) Materials Visual inspection/testing—direct viewing, borescopes, video, magnifying glass, speckle metrology Visual observation of the test object surface to evaluate dimensions, color, and presence of surface discontinuities Postmanufacturing inspections, in-service inspections looking...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001661
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... to find discontinuities, metallurgical evaluation of the discontinuities, analysis of any failure modes, and determination of the best repair techniques. The welds were made with prequalified joints in accordance with AWS D1.1-77 and required only visual inspection. More sensitive inspection methods were...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001639
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... automated ultrasonic inspection supplemented by remote visual inspection. The inspection system provided the following capabilities: Thickness mapping Weld inspection Crack detection Flaw sizing Through-wall bleed-out Visual/photography Inspection Equipment Ultrasonic System...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001124
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
...Abstract Abstract Several wires in aluminum conductor cables fractured within 5 to 8 years of, service in Alaskan tundra. The cables were comprised of 19-wire strands; the wires were aluminum alloy 6201-T81. Visual and metallographic examinations of the cold-upset pressure weld joints...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001777
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... the structural system does not account for any redundancy. Fig. 1 Global view taken from the back side of the BSR after the collapse The investigation of the collapse was based on (a) on-site visual inspection of the collapsed structure; (b) identification of the main regions of the structure...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001292
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... for determination of the cause and nature of the cracking and estimation of the rate at which the defect had grown to failure. This information was required so that inspection intervals could be set to ensure detection of similar cracking in other struts and thus avoid catastrophic failure. Visual Examination...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001293
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
...Abstract Abstract A forged, cadmium-plated electroslag remelt (ESR) 4340 steel mixer pivot support of the rotor support assembly located on an Army attack helicopter was found to be broken in two pieces during an inspection. Visual inspection of the failed part revealed significant wear...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001765
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... on the bottom plates and first to third course shell plates. Sand blasting and repainting of the bottom plates and first course shell plates was to be used as a remedial measure. However, during the sand blasting, holes and deep pitting were observed on the bottom plates. On-site visual inspection, magnetic...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001811
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
..., careful visual inspection should always precede any technique requiring destruction or cutting of a failed part. A frequent error in investigating a failure is to interpret it automatically on the basis of the most commonly known causes indicated from past experience. Although this cannot be avoided...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c0091655
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... of the piece. Investigation (visual inspection, on-site radiographic inspection, limited ultrasonic inspection, chemical analysis, 53x metallographic cross sections and SEM images etched in 8:1 phosphoric acid) supported the conclusion that the cracking mechanism was intergranular SCC. No recommendations were...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.rail.c9001496
EISBN: 978-1-62708-231-0
... was tooth bending fatigue of the gear from the reverse direction near the toe end. The cause of failure was a crossed-over tooth bearing condition that placed loads at the heel end when going forward and at the toe end when going in reverse. The condition was too consistent to be a deflection under load...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006758
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... to determine optimal areas upon which to focus for sectioning and metallography in order to further investigate the condition of the component. This article provides information on the inspection method available for failure analysis, including standard methods such as visual testing, penetrant testing...