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direct powder rolling

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001712
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... Abstract A failure analysis was conducted in late 1996 on two rolls that had been used in the production of iron and steel powder. The rolls had elongated over their length such that the roll trunnions had impacted with the furnace wall refractory. The result was distortion and bowing...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003507
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... and pearlite have formed along the rolling direction. The relationship between increasing percentages of reduction by hot rolling and the intensity of banding in type 430 stainless steel is demonstrated by Fig. 5 . Fig. 3 Longitudinal section through a hot-rolled 1041 steel bar showing a carbon-rich...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006864
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... Abstract This article discusses technologies focused on processing plastic materials or producing direct tools used in plastics processing. The article focuses on extrusion and injection molding, covering applications, materials and their properties, equipment, processing details, part design...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001768
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... the above standard and no deviation was observed in the chemistry ( Table 1 ). Physical Examination Detailed visual examination of the cracked angle sample was carried out. Cracks were only found in the heel (corner) portion of the angle running parallel to the rolling direction. Typical photograph...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006792
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... to a corresponding decrease in hardening in the other direction ( Ref 25 , 26 ). Therefore, the reversal in shear stress observed as the rolling contact passes over a given location in the material will first yield the material in one direction and then again in the opposite direction. Each of these cycles leads...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006834
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... number of internal structures that were developed and standardized since the first industry norm printed in 1903 ( Ref 3 – 5 ). Fig. 2 Main loading directions of rolling-element bearing structures. Adapted from Ref 3 Those rational internal geometries are based on three main principles...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001815
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... mating teeth resembles that of two cones rolling on each other (see Fig. 7 for angles and terminology). The use of straight bevel gears is generally limited to drives that operate at low speeds and where noise is not important. If the speeds are to remain the same with only a 90° change of direction...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001810
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... Abstract Rolling-element bearings use rolling elements interposed between two raceways, and relative motion is permitted by the rotation of these elements. This article presents an overview of bearing materials, bearing-load ratings, and an examination of failed bearings. Rolling-element...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006765
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
..., with an additive for corrosion protection and lubrication, should be directed uniformly into the cut. Wet cutting produces a smooth surface finish and, most importantly, guards against excessive surface damage caused by overheating. Figure 1 shows the surface of quenched and tempered A2 tool steel (59 HRC) cut...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006820
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
..., and the contact areas see the same Hertzian fatigue stress seen by rolling-element bearings, plus surface fatigue stress. Adding to the complexity, except for worm gears, the contact between mating teeth involves both rolling and sliding, and the sliding motion changes velocity and direction during that contact...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.rail.c9001665
EISBN: 978-1-62708-231-0
... is a simplified drawing of one end of the casting prepared from the original engineering drawings. It gives a general idea of the shape of the casting as seen from a direction perpendicular to the axis of the freight car. The journal box, within which one of the wheel-bearing axles rotated, is shown on the left...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.rail.c9001719
EISBN: 978-1-62708-231-0
... removed. Two almost identical fracture surfaces from failed locomotive axles were also obtained. A photograph of one fracture surface is shown in Figure 6 . The fracture surface was 90° with respect to the rolling direction of the axle. The fracture surface was damaged due to the continued...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003563
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
..., this distance is from 0.18 to 0.30 mm (0.007 to 0.012 in.) below the surface just ahead of the rolling point of contact. If sliding is occurring in the same direction, the shear stress increases at the same point. If the shear plane is close to the surface, then light pitting can occur. If the shear plane...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003532
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... lenses are still widely used to study fractures but mainly in the field. While the light microscope has limited value for direct observation of fracture surfaces, a great deal can be learned by indirect examination, that is, by examination of the fracture profile and secondary cracking. Detailed...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003524
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... the direction of the failure analyst. A field failure report sheet or checklist can be used to ensure that all pertinent information regarding the failure is recorded. There also are situations where it is essential to perform failure analyses on the site. While it is recommended that examination be done...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006789
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... damage of the worn products after the tribological process. Then, the article describes some examples of wear processes, considering possible transitions and/or interactions of the mechanism of fretting wear, rolling-sliding wear, abrasive wear, and solid-particle erosion wear. The role of tribological...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006935
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... step is to select those processes that can handle the material to produce the required properties in the part. This may involve selecting processes to provide the maximum achievable physical properties of the material in one direction or location. Process selection must then be refined, allowing...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003562
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... to the polymer by the formation of cylindrical wear particles formed by rolling up of thin detached surface layers, which are extruded in a direction at right angles to the motion ( Ref 52 , 53 ). In an investigation of fretting wear of fiber-reinforced polymers (composites) in contact with an aluminum...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003528
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... processing can be a good indication; for example, in the case of rolling, grinding, or turning processes, the directions parallel and perpendicular to the rolling, grinding, or turning direction are of interest. In specimens where induced stresses are omnidirectional, one direction or two orthogonal...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006768
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... analysis), the measurement of stresses in six directions is recommended (a minimum of three are required). Initial stresses generated during processing can be a good indication; for example, in the case of rolling, grinding, or turning processes, the directions parallel and perpendicular to the rolling...