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direct light processing

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006763
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... as the overall condition of the component. Accurate color in laboratory photographic documentation is critical, and periodic use of photographic color standards assist in this task. The as-received photographic process should include color-balanced, direct lighting and a scale or ruler in the photograph...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003527
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
..., and periodic use of photographic color standards assists in this task. The as-received photographic process should begin with direct lighting and a scale or ruler in the photograph for reference. After direct lighting, varying degrees of oblique lighting can be used to highlight the topographic features...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006851
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... and/or shipping packages will record any potential changes that the component underwent following failure and/or any damage imposed by abuse during shipping and handling. The as-received photographic process should include proper color balance, direct lighting, and a scale or ruler in the photograph...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003532
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... lenses are still widely used to study fractures but mainly in the field. While the light microscope has limited value for direct observation of fracture surfaces, a great deal can be learned by indirect examination, that is, by examination of the fracture profile and secondary cracking. Detailed...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003542
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... (direct illumination); picture width ∼5 mm Fig. 6 Silicon nitride rod broken in uniaxial tension. The same rod shown in Fig. 5 . Fracture origin is at the top of the image. Optical microscope; reflected light (oblique illumination); picture width ∼5 mm In the SEM, imaging techniques need...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006937
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... analysis and the optical characteristics of plastic materials. A transparent material that has a refractive index (that is, relative velocity of transmission) that remains the same regardless of the direction or the polarization of transmitted light is said to be isotropic. A material for which...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006765
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... deformation and scratch removal and improve polarized light response. Contra rotation (head moves in the direction opposite to the platen) is preferred, because the slurry stays on the cloth better, although this does not work if the head rotates at a high number of revolutions per minute (>90). Examples...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c0049797
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... thread groove was visible on the fracture surface. Heavy oxidation at elevated temperatures was indicated as most of the surface of the flaw was black. Fine secondary cracks aligned transverse to the growth direction was revealed by scanning electron microscopy. It was established that intergranular...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003520
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... be performed. It is still possible, because good work was accomplished prior to the development of these instruments, but the investigator must be more resourceful. Fractures can be studied by light microscopy, either by direct examination of the fracture face or by the use of metallographic sections...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001649
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... Abstract Two titanium alloy wing attachment bolts from a commercial jetliner failed during the course of a routine service operation. Failure of the bolts occurred during the re-torque process as the wing was being reattached. Metallurgical failure analysis indicated that the fracture mechanism...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001768
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... region running parallel to the rolling direction. Light microscopy as well as SEM–EDS studies of the sample near the crack (sample# 1) did not reveal any cut, notches, or entrapments. The etched microstructure of the samesample, however, revealed a white-etching layer at the crack origin...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.machtools.c0047154
EISBN: 978-1-62708-223-5
... (black) and some decarburization (light). Etched with 2% nital. 500×. Source: Ref 1 Investigation The pronounced fibrous structure of the component became evident as soon as it was etched with 2% nital. Folds in the material originating from the shaping process were visible at the point...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006915
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... character of processed parts also controls optical properties. Smooth surfaces reflect and transmit light at limited angles, whereas rough surfaces scatter the light. Consequently, smooth surfaces produce clear and glossy products, while rough surfaces appear dull and hazy. Surface character is usually...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c9001404
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
.... The vessels were used for concentrating sugar solution and, since the cracks started from the enclosed space above the blocking ring, it is apparent that the material being processed could not have been responsible. Subsequent enquiries brought to light the fact that the pans had been periodically hosed down...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001455
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... is associated with visible changes in the microstructure. The under-aged material which normally shows the greatest susceptibility to this form of attack reveals, when etched with Kellers reagent, a structure consisting of alternate dark and light bands, orientated parallel to the direction of flow during...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c9001675
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... temperature is subject to damage and ultimate failure by a variety of mechanisms including oxidation, embrittlement, creep, and thermal fatigue. The process of thermal fatigue has not been studied extensively, although this is a common cause of failure in high temperature tubes. Damage may be produced...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001843
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
.... Corros. 59 ( 3 ), 254 – 260 ( 2008 ) 10.1002/maco.200804151 2. Lasky R.C. : Tin pest: a forgotten issue in lead free soldering . In: 2004 SMTA International Conference Proceedings , Chicago, IL , Sept 26–30, 2004 , pp. 838 – 840 3. ROHS DirectiveDirective 2002 / 95 / EC...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006920
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... transfer and deactivation process for quenchers Fig. 17 Peroxide radical deactivation process with a primary antioxidant (e.g., sterically hindered phenol) Fig. 18 Reaction of a hindered amine light stabilizer derivate with a peroxide radical to form a nitroxy radical Fig. 19...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006864
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... or small areas between walls. This is especially true if the rotation is not strong enough. Ensure there is enough material to begin with Ensure the rotation speed and direction are suitable Redesign the mold to remove sharp corners or small gaps Increase processing temperature to lower...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006757
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
.... Microfractography Detailed examination of fracture surfaces at higher magnification can facilitate evaluation of the failure mechanisms. Microfractographic examination can be conducted in several ways, including direct methods involving light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy and indirect methods...