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dimensional changes

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001520
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... for a reheat treatment. For parts that cracked after pressure testing, excessive dimensional changes precluded the inclusion of a reheat treatment as a manufacturing step, and further failure was averted by carefully employing proper machining practices, avoiding abusive machining. Chromium plating...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001712
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... to account for the dimensional change observed in the failed rolls. This paper details the failure analysis and resulting research it inspired. It also provides recommendations for cast material choice in highly nitriding atmospheres. Metal powders Nitrogen absorption Reduction furnaces Rolls...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c0090277
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
.... It also included FEA (thermal gradients, nonlinear material behavior, residual stress, changes in wall thickness during the formation of U-bends, and TSP distortions near the ruptured tube) of three-dimensional solid models of the U-tubes. The conclusion was that distortion of the TSPs and resulting...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003510
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... austenite is converted to martensite is approximately 0.014 in./in. for eutectoid compositions. This illustrates the effect of carbon structure and steel transformation on residual stresses and distortion leading to dimensional changes. Fig. 5 Carbon content versus lattice parameters of (retained...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003558
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... caused by wear. Typically, it is the geometrical or profile aspects of these changes, such as a dimensional change, a change in shape, or residual thickness of a coating, that cause failure. However, a change in appearance and the nature of the wear damage also can be causes for failure. An example...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001601
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... 4130 steel Spring back is the dimensional change of the formed part after the pressure of the forming roller has been released. It results from the strain produced by elastic recovery 8 and can cause dimensional distortions. When the load is released, elastic recovery will take place...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003525
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... Thermomechanical analysis (TMA) is a thermal analysis method in which linear or volumetric dimensional changes are measured as a function of temperature, time, or force ( Ref 2 ). Thermomechanical analysis is used to study the structure of a polymeric material by evaluating the implications of the material...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001593
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... in an attempt to achieve an equilibrium state. Physical aging is particularly prevalent when an amorphous resin is cooled rapidly through the glass transition temperature. 3 The condition is aggravated when the plastic resin is molded over a metal insert, as dimensional changes often accompany physical aging...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001329
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... Association of Corrosion Engineers (NACE) has termed the dealloying phenomenon associated with aluminum-copper alloy systems as “dealuminization.” NACE further emphasizes that although color changes may be associated with dealloying, no cracks, pits, dimensional changes, grooving, or obvious metal loss...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001308
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... no indication of weakened grain boundaries, again indicating that fatigue and grain boundary embrittlement were not factors in the cracking. Quench cracks in steels result from residual stresses created by dimensional changes during cooling, large temperature gradients between the surface and center...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.med.c9001664
EISBN: 978-1-62708-226-6
... the screw hole showing the gouge marks (see arrows). The general plane of the fracture surface was level and was perpendicular to the plate axis. It passed through the center of the eighth hole. Little dimensional change had occurred at the fracture site, so that the fracture can be classified...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006816
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... during hardening Fig. 4 Micrographs of cracks after heat treatment caused either by sharp radii or related machining problems. (a) 4140 steel as-quenched and tempered; microstructure is tempered martensite with quench crack at area of dimensional change. 2% nital etch. Original magnification...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006804
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... in API 579-1/ASME FFS-1 ( Ref 4 ), Section 11, Annex 11B. The data and measurements that should be considered for components exposed to heat exposure zones where mechanical properties or dimensional changes can occur are: Diametrical and circumferential variations of cylindrical vessels...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006773
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... in manufacture, processing, or assembly. Microstructural defects, subsurface laminations, and welding defects are common examples of materials defects that cause failure. In many cases when there is clear evidence of a materials-related cause of failure, simply changing the material to one that is more...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003526
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... of a materials-related cause of failure, simply changing the material to one that is more resistant to the specific cause of failure will eliminate the problem. However, after a materials failure analysis is complete, often there is no material factor associated directly with the failure. Moreover, in some cases...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006772
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... are not able to visit the accident scene often are limited to studying scene photographs taken by others. However, new technologies such as laser scanning allow for digital three-dimensional (3D) scene preservation, which allows for much richer investigation by those who were not initially present...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001028
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... terminates at a controlled distance just below the inside top surface of the endcap/tank. The endcap/baffle/tube assembly is attached to the forward end of the tank by a gas tungsten arc weld (GTAW) around the periphery. Physical and dimensional features were recorded during the removal of the area...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006774
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... powdered debris (fretting) Smooth gradual transitions in wastage Multiple brittle-appearing fissures External surface and internal fissures contain reaction scale coatings Fracture after limited dimensional change Scanning electron microscopy, 20 to 10,000× (fracture surface...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003521
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... reaction scale coatings. Fracture after limited dimensional change Scanning electron microscopy, 20 to 10,000× (fracture surface) Microvoids (dimples) elongated in direction of loading Single crack with no branching Surface slip band emergence Cleavage or intergranular fracture...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001810
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
..., y, expressed as L 10 = ( C / P ) y , where y = 3 for ball bearings and y = 10 3 for roller bearings. The exponential character of this relationship between basic load and bearing life indicates that, for any given speed, a change in load may have a substantial effect on life...