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diffusion bonding

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001133
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... effectively increases the solidus temperature from approximately 1425 °C (2600 °F) for a 0.30% C alloy to up to 1495 °C (2720 °F) for pure cobalt. Because the rate of diffusion and consequently the rate of diffusion bonding are functions of homologous temperature ( T/T melting ), the lower-carbon surface...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001829
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... temperature caused fine-grain formation (less than 20 μm) by recrystallization. One cannot determine the exact cause of recrystallization. but one can infer that the large grain-boundary area produced by the fine grains in the bond coat act as short-circuit aluminum diffusion paths for the substrate. Aluminum...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006926
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
.... , Vol 10 (No. 39 ), 1978 10.1002/pi.4980100108 11. Ueberreiter K. , The Solution Process , Diffusion in Polymers , Crank J. and Park G.S. , Ed., Academic Press , 1968 12. Miller-Chou B.A. and Koenig J.L. , A review of polymer dissolution , Prog...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006828
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... physical and chemical properties. In the simplest, and most common case, it consists of the base-metal parts to be joined and the added filler metal. However, partial dissolution of the base metal, combined with diffusion processes, can change the composition and therefore the chemical and physical...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003551
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
..., or diffusion of impurity ions and sintering aids from the inner layers to the surface of the ceramic. A detailed survey of the subject is presented in Ref 14 . For hot corrosion to complement the data listed in Table 2 , only one significant result obtained on reaction-bonding silicon nitride (RBSN...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006929
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... Three-dimensional rectangle divided into sections A, B, and C with dimensions a, b, and c (Adapted from Ref 13). Section A defined by three diffusion directions, a total volume of a 3 , and an average concentration of C ¯ 3 D . Section B defined by two diffusion direction, a total...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006925
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... and Si 3 N 4 good … Source: Ref 2 Bond energies for various materials Table 2 Bond energies for various materials Bond type Material Bond energy kJ/mol kcal/mol Ionic NaCl 640 153 MgO 1000 239 Covalent Si 450 108 C (diamond) 713 170 Metallic Hg 68...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001834
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... obvious vapor oxidation corrosion characteristics. Corrosion originated in the grain boundary, and selective oxidation occurred due to ion diffusion in the substrate. The layered oxide scale on the inner wall is related to the different diffusion rates for different cations. Exposure to high temperature...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006920
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... ketone group and a terminal double bond. Fig. 7 Photooxidation mechanism of polypropylene Fig. 9 Phenyl ring opening reactions Fig. 8 Photooxidation mechanism of polymethyl methacrylate showing intramolecular and intermolecular association of hydroxyl groups with other...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001265
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
.... This microstructure decreases the fatigue-initiatior. resistance of the material and can degrade the high-cycle fatigue performance of the component. Alternate bonding techniques that do not result in a β transformation of the microstructure, such as diffusion bonding, should be explored. The evidence...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003555
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
..., hydrocarbons, carbon, or other carbonaceous compounds. Carburization alone usually does not result in corrosion or alloy wastage, but adsorption and diffusion of carbon into the base alloy can lead to significant changes in the alloy mechanical properties and thus possible alloy embrittlement. Variables...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.steel.c9001714
EISBN: 978-1-62708-232-7
... ratio. Metallographic investigations revealed that the surface of the attacked pipes consisted of (Cr, Fe) carbide. The metal dusting was the result of a decomposition process (CO to CO2 + C) that deposited C on the pipe surface. Because of the high temperature, the C subsequently diffused through...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006915
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... of species such as water, oxygen, and carbon dioxide. If there are strong interactions between the polymer and the migrating species, absorption may be high, but permeation may be low as the migrating species is delayed from diffusing. For example, the polar carbon–chlorine bonds in polyvinylidene chloride...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006787
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... failures, molten salts for energy storage, and degradation and failures in gas turbines. The article describes the effects of environment on aero gas turbine engines and provides an overview of aging, diffusion, and interdiffusion phenomena. It also discusses the processes involved in high-temperature...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001391
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
.... Segregation due to diffusion and mass transport, typical for a ceramic-to-metal bond, was observed. The heaviest concentration of the oxides and glass formers was toward the substrate, whereas the silver remained at the surface for subsequent metallic joining operations. Metallographic examination...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006824
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
..., a diffusion-controlled deformation process known as creep occurs. The stress required for creep deformation may be well below the yield strength of the alloy. The temperature dependence on creep is a function of the homologous temperature, which is expressed as the ratio of the metal temperature...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003550
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
.... The effects mentioned previously will occur in both amorphous and crystalline plastics, but they may not be as visibly evident in crystalline ones. Crystalline plastics often do not appear to be as affected by interactions with solvents, since diffusion of solvent into the crystalline regions is much more...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006909
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... to longer times at 23 °C (73 °F) using the Arrhenius equation are in good agreement with experimental data obtained at 23 °C. Source: Ref 11 Fig. 4 Temperature dependence of diffusivity ( D ) for unidirectional T300/924 carbon/epoxy immersed in deionized water Fig. 5 Glass transition...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.bldgs.c9001548
EISBN: 978-1-62708-219-8
... Abstract In 1975, a manufacturer was awarded a contract to produce modular air-traffic control towers for the U.S. Navy. The specifications called for painted steel siding, but the manufacturer convinced the Navy to substitute aluminum-bonded-to-plywood panels that were provided by a supplier...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006784
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
...-strength steels. The solubility and diffusivity of hydrogen in steel sharply decrease with lowering temperatures; therefore, when a heavy section of steel containing hydrogen at elevated temperature is rapidly cooled to ambient temperature, the hydrogen remaining in the steel precipitates out...