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diffusion bonding

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001133
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... and solidus temperatures. The lower-carbon-content surface layer effectively increases the solidus temperature from approximately 1425 °C (2600 °F) for a 0.30% C alloy to up to 1495 °C (2720 °F) for pure cobalt. Because the rate of diffusion and consequently the rate of diffusion bonding are functions...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001265
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... that do not result in a β transformation of the microstructure, such as diffusion bonding, should be explored. Thanks are directed to Dr. A. Tsao, Department of Orthopaedics, Northwestern University, for providing the retrieved implants for this analysis. ...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001829
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... coat, and β phases of 721ES were coarser than those of 400ES. Additionally, more aluminum oxides, formed by aluminum diffusion, were observed at the bond-coat/substrate interface of the 721ES samples. Fig. 2 Backscattered images of cross-sectional area of (a) 400 and (b) 721ES. Higher...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003551
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... (1830) A, 800 (1470) A, 400 (750) A, 900 (1650) A, 1000 (1830) B, 500 (930) B, 500 (930) C, 800 (1470) Zirconia (stabilized) … C, 800 (1470) … C, 900 (1650) A, 1000 (1830) B, 500 (930) C, 500 (930) C, 800 (1470) SiC (reaction bonded) B, 900 (1650) C, 800 (1470) A, 400 (750) C...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006787
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
.... 6 More detailed view of sulfidation of IN-690 incinerator liner ( Fig. 5 ) shows formation of chromium sulfides (gray areas, such as marked by arrow) along the surface, caused by diffusion of sulfur species along the grain boundaries. Sulfide concentration decreases with depth due to diffusion...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003555
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... approximately 50 to 250 μm deep. The sulfidized weakened structure of the alloy has led to cracking. Fig. 6 Formation of chromium sulfides (gray areas, such as marked by arrow) along the surface, caused by diffusion of sulfur species along the grain boundaries of IN-690 liner. As expected, sulfide...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003550
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... diffusion of solvent into the crystalline regions is much more limited ( Ref 9 ). Adsorption of solvents into the amorphous regions of a crystalline polymer will create the discussed effects within those regions of the polymer morphology; this can result in changes in polymer mechanical properties...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003538
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... to the slip plane causes alternate rupture and self-healing of the interatomic bonds, resulting in permanent deformation. A normal stress applied to the body causes only continued separation of atoms and therefore brittle cleavage fracture. Fig. 2 Schematic figure showing the effect of a normal stress...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006775
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... to first examine what is meant by cleavage in crystalline materials. Figure 2 is often used to illustrate the differences in mechanisms for slip and cleavage. A shear stress applied to the material parallel to the slip plane causes alternate rupture and self-healing of the interatomic bonds, resulting...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003543
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
.... The microscale fractographic features consist of ruptured dimples, and both diffuse and local necking may be macroscopically visible depending on the component geometry. Mechanical conditions and metallurgical features can influence the appearance of MVC. Examples are shown for a ferritic steel ( Fig. 1a...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006778
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... the inclusion or second phase fractures. The level of extensional growth of the microvoids is dependent on the level of plastic strain the material can undergo prior to fracture. Microscale fractographic features consist of ruptured dimples, and both diffuse and local necking may be macroscopically visible...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.steel.c9001714
EISBN: 978-1-62708-232-7
...:1 CO/CO2 ratio. Metallographic investigations revealed that the surface of the attacked pipes consisted of (Cr, Fe) carbide. The metal dusting was the result of a decomposition process (CO to CO2 + C) that deposited C on the pipe surface. Because of the high temperature, the C subsequently diffused...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001834
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... observed on the inner wall showed obvious vapor oxidation corrosion characteristics. Corrosion originated in the grain boundary, and selective oxidation occurred due to ion diffusion in the substrate. The layered oxide scale on the inner wall is related to the different diffusion rates for different...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001391
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... was zirconium rich. Significant amounts of silicon were also detected, most likely present as an oxide or glass former. Segregation due to diffusion and mass transport, typical for a ceramic-to-metal bond, was observed. The heaviest concentration of the oxides and glass formers was toward the substrate, whereas...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.bldgs.c9001548
EISBN: 978-1-62708-219-8
...Abstract Abstract In 1975, a manufacturer was awarded a contract to produce modular air-traffic control towers for the U.S. Navy. The specifications called for painted steel siding, but the manufacturer convinced the Navy to substitute aluminum-bonded-to-plywood panels that were provided...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006784
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... be particularly damaging, because many of the baths produce heavy concentrations of atomic hydrogen at the interface of the base material and plated layer. While the hydrogen atoms can diffuse readily into the iron matrix of the steel, the zinc or cadmium plating acts as a barrier to any hydrogen atoms that may...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003552
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... expensive than zinc plating, the design engineer must consider the possibility that postcorrosion prevention-coating application baking is more readily available for plating than for phosphates. Both plating and phosphate coating can allow damaging amounts of hydrogen to diffuse into the steel. Some...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001812
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... (by fluxing) or mechanically (by abrasion) before LME can occur. Even with fluxes and abrasion, it can be difficult to achieve wetting in some systems, e.g. liquid mercury and high-strength steels. Since there is neither the time nor the tendency for diffusion of embrittling atoms ahead of crack-tips...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006770
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
.... Figure 12 shows the results of WDS analysis on a metallographically prepared section of a bolt with excessive phosphorus concentration in the near-surface material. Diffusion of excessive phosphorus into the steel during heat treatment led to brittle fracture of the bolt. Wavelength-dispersive...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006789
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... and some erosion processes can involve dissolution. Adhesive wear is fracture produced by solid-state bonding of one material to another. If motion persists after bonding, fracture must take place. Material “A” may fracture, with some of it bonding to contacting material “B,” or the fractured material...