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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001679
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... Abstract Several mercury diffusion pump stages in the Tritium Purification process at the Savannah River Site (SRS) have been removed from service for scheduled preventive maintenance. These stages have been examined to determine if failure has occurred. Evidence of fatigue around the flange...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001304
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... Abstract An exhaust diffuser assembly failed prematurely in service. The failure occurred near the intake end of the assembly and involved fracture in the diffuser cone (Corten), diffuser in take flange (type 310 stainless steel), diffuser exit flange (type 405 stainless steel), expansion...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006787
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... failures, molten salts for energy storage, and degradation and failures in gas turbines. The article describes the effects of environment on aero gas turbine engines and provides an overview of aging, diffusion, and interdiffusion phenomena. It also discusses the processes involved in high-temperature...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.petrol.c0048830
EISBN: 978-1-62708-228-0
... diffusion of hydrogen into the metal in the cracked region. The resultant embrittlement and associated fissuring was established to have caused the failure. The hydrogen was diffused out by wrapping the vessel in asbestos and heating followed by cooling as prescribed by ASME code. Hydrogen reformers...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.mech.c0048634
EISBN: 978-1-62708-225-9
..., indicating hydrogen embrittlement. An investigation was conducted to determine the extent of hydrogen embrittlement in the various lots of cadmium-plated 8740 steel fasteners. It was found that hydrogen embrittlement was caused by the use of a bright, impervious cadmium electroplate that hindered diffusion...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001066
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... been exposed to the process stream was discolored. Failure of the spool was attributed to stress-corrosion cracking promoted by the presence of nitrates. Nitric acid contaminant in the sulfuric acid stream had diffused through the liner and accumulated in the annular space. Use of a liner that is more...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001834
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... the inner wall showed obvious vapor oxidation corrosion characteristics. Corrosion originated in the grain boundary, and selective oxidation occurred due to ion diffusion in the substrate. The layered oxide scale on the inner wall is related to the different diffusion rates for different cations...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c9001746
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
... Abstract Brittle intergranular fracture, typical of a hydrogen-induced delayed failure, caused the failure of an AISI 4340 Cr-Mo-Ni landing gear beam. Corrosion resulting from protective coating damage released nascent hydrogen, which diffused into the steel under the influence of sustained...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.design.c0046079
EISBN: 978-1-62708-233-4
... that prolonged heating of the galvanized steel heater shells caused the zinc-rich surface to become alloyed with iron and reduce the number of layers. Also, heating caused zinc to diffuse along grain boundaries toward the center of the sheet. Zinc in the grain boundaries reacted with iron to form the...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.steel.c0046956
EISBN: 978-1-62708-232-7
... diffused into the nickel-base alloy and formed a grain-boundary phase that was molten at the operating temperature. The presence of this phase caused localized liquefaction and weakened the alloy sufficiently to allow formation of the holes. No recommendations were made. Brazing furnaces Grain...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.steel.c9001714
EISBN: 978-1-62708-232-7
... ratio. Metallographic investigations revealed that the surface of the attacked pipes consisted of (Cr, Fe) carbide. The metal dusting was the result of a decomposition process (CO to CO2 + C) that deposited C on the pipe surface. Because of the high temperature, the C subsequently diffused through the...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c0047641
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... of the segmented backup ring was provided, and a fine-mesh stainless steel screen diffuser was incorporated in the channel section of the backup ring to prevent air from leaking in. A titanium alloy color chart was furnished to permit correlation of weld-zone discoloration with the degree of...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001150
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... Abstract A number of rotating blades in a diffuser at a sugar beet processing plant fabricated from rectangular bars cut from rolled carbon-manganese steel plate fractured brittlely. However, apparently identical blades underwent significant plastic deformation without fracture. Inspection of...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001184
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... was adapted to the latter by diffusion only at the periphery of the inclusion. In another section of a hardened piece of the same chromium steel, the steel in this case had a structure of martensite with hypereutectic carbide, while the inclusions consisted of a very fine laminated eutectoid of the...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001616
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... species on the tubes in Stage 3. The complete failure of the tube occurred due to diffusion of these elements into the base metal and precipitation of potassium and chlorine compounds along the grain boundaries, with subsequent dislodging of grains. The nonmetallic inclusions acted as nucleating sites for...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001566
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... Abstract A desuperheater diffuser nozzle in the steam supply line failed within nine months of service in an 8.25 MN/sq m (1200 psig) steam line. The nozzle was an austenitic stainless steel casting in conformance to material. The nozzle had numerous cracks on the inside and outside surfaces...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001031
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... caused ductility loss and grain-boundary separation. The excessive oxygen content in the liner was attributed to diffusion from an oxygen-rich environment that had resulted from nonuniform mixing of propellants. The internal oxygen embrittled the alloy and reduced its thermal conductivity, which resulted...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001099
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... Abstract Uncoated high-strength alloy steel cap screws retaining a cast aluminum (356.0) diffuser assembly in a centrifugal refrigerant compressor failed in a brittle manner a short time after the system was placed in operation. Evidence obtained during the failure analysis indicated that the...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001771
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
..., coke readily accumulates on the surface of the tubes, fueling carbon diffusion into the metal and a corresponding degradation in microstructure and loss of ductility at high temperatures. radiant tube stress rupture thermal shock heat resistant steel carbide precipitates SEM-EDS analysis...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001816
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... by intergranular sliding of ferrite/ferrite and ferrite/pearlite, just as it occurs in stage III creep behavior. The behavior is confirmed through the Ashby-Verrall model, according to which the dislocation creep (power-law creep) and diffusion creep (linear-viscous creep) occur simultaneously...