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die forging

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001848
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
...Abstract Abstract A forging die in a 250-ton press producing brass valves began to show signs of fatigue after a few thousand hits. By the time it reached 30,000 hits, the die was badly damaged and was submitted for analysis along with one of the last forgings produced. The investigation...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.machtools.c0089456
EISBN: 978-1-62708-223-5
...Abstract Abstract A cross-recessed die of D5 tool steel fractured in service. The die face was found to be subjected to shear and tensile stresses as a result of the forging pressures from the material being worked. The presence of numerous slag stringers was revealed by microscopic examination...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001270
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... in the forgings and from material flow during trimming and/or material flow during forging. Closed-die forging Cracking (fracturing) Die forgings Alloy steel Carbon steel Metalworking-related failures Intergranular fracture Background Testing Procedure and Results Discussion Conclusion...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006835
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
..., or flat initially produced from ingots or, in some cases, made from the product of a continuous casting operation. Primary deformation processes, such as hot rolling, extrusion, and open-die forging, are then used for converting the cast structure to a fine-grained wrought structure while reducing...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c0046022
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
... properties of an aluminum alloy 2014-T6 die forging with a section thickness of 100 mm (4 in.) or less (which apply to this attachment fitting) are: The presence of chromic acid stain on the fracture surface proved that the forging had cracked before anodizing. This suggest that the crack initiated...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003507
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... molds or by continuous casting techniques. Primary deformation processes, such as hot rolling, tube piercing, extrusion, and open-die forging, are then used for converting the cast structure. Many large open-die forgings are forged directly from ingots, while most closed-die and upset forgings...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001359
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... made of titanium alloy IMI 550, with a nominal composition of 4% Al, 4% Mo, were manufactured by the closed-die forging process. Targeting bosses flash buttons at the extremities of the blades serve as reference points for dimensional control and are later removed by grinding. Visual Scanning...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001845
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
...) alloy approximately 6 months after commissioning. A steady clamp is a kind of fitting for the overhead contact system in electrified railways, being applied to fix the copper wires. Typical physical properties of CuNi 2 Si are presented in Table 1 . Steel die forging was applied as the processing...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.9781627083294
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001814
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
...Abstract Abstract This article describes the characteristics of tools and dies and the causes of their failures. It discusses the failure mechanisms in tool and die materials that are important to nearly all manufacturing processes, but is primarily devoted to failures of tool steels used...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006818
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... by a forging lap in a sledgehammer head. (a) Cracks on the striking face soon after the hammer was first used. (b) A hot alkaline chromate etch revealed oxygen enrichment (white region) adjacent to the crack. Original magnification: 65× Fig. 38 Die made from AISI O1 tool steel that was found...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001005
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... Properties Forging slugs were blanks are prepared from annealed 4135 alloy bar material by shearing to the appropriate length. The process of forging the steering arm required repeated hits of the forging billet using a series of three separate die cavities. The arm was forged into a U-shape...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001302
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
...Abstract Abstract To forged AISI 4140 steel trailer kingpins fractured after 4 to 6 months of service. Fractographic and metallographic examination revealed that cracks were present in the spool-flange shoulder region of the defective kingpins prior to installation on the trailers. The cracks...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001788
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... for the estimation of forging die fatigue life and validated it by some industrial case studies. Fu et al. [ 1 ] employed both stress-and strain-based fatigue analysis techniques to develop the relationship of die life with its various affecting factors. Falk et al. [ 5 ] used different approaches for estimation...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c0047165
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
... in the flange area The forging blank contained less than the optimum volume of metal in the flange area, resulting in an underfill condition Forging-die design was inefficient The forging operation was unduly fast for the specific design Some metal was removed from the surface during the forging...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c9001636
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
... (α + β) phase field working (extrusion + two die forging operations) to provide a uniformly worked α + β microstructure. This processing was followed by annealing for 3 h at 700 °C (973 K). Precision sectioning of one of the fracture surfaces, at and near the fatigue origin, was done to check...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003532
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... (a) Macrograph of fracture, (b) SEM fractograph, and (c) light micrograph showing shrinkage cavities in an unusual tensile fracture from a carbon steel casting. The microstructure was revealed using nital. Fig. 25 Light micrographs of two cross-sectional views of a seam found on a closed-die forged...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006765
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... contrast, it may be difficult to determine where the nickel plating ends and the surface begins, as shown in Fig. 3 (d). Figure 4 shows an example of ion-nitrided hot work die steel with a brittle white-etching iron nitride surface layer that is quite visible when mounted in a mineral-filled epoxy resin...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006761
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... on, these three orientations are longitudinal, long transverse, and short transverse. For other manufacturing operations such as die forgings, castings, and additive manufacturing, the mechanical property dependency on location and orientation can be even more complex. Therefore, it is important that any...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006816
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
.... This susceptibility to cracking is increased by the presence of stress raisers such as sharp fillets, tool marks or other notches, massive inclusions or voids. Quench cracks may also occur near the trim line of a closed-die forging where some localized burning may have occurred. Other factors that affect quench...