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Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003563
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... at 25 g load 10.8 GPa at 25 g load 1 to 300 (f) 59 (1992) Ion beam DLC M50 Three ball on rod (lubricated) 4.8 0.33 N/A N/A N/A 91.5 at 23 °C (73 °F) ( L 50 ) (g) 45.9 at 177 °C (73 °F) ( L 50 ) (g) 60 (1997) Note: AISI, American Iron and Steel Institute; DLHC, diamond-like...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003532
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... cooled 27 (6) 240–300Comp Until plane Silk cloth 9 μm polycrystalline diamond suspension 27 (6) 120–150Comp 5 Synthetic woven cloth 3 μm polycrystalline diamond suspension 27 (6) 120–150Comp 4 Synthetic short nap cloth ∼0.05 μm colloidal silica or sol-gel alumina suspensions 27 (6...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006765
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... to make very precise cuts. They are smaller in size than the usual laboratory abrasive cutoff saw and use much smaller blades, typically from 7.6 to 20.3 cm (3 to 8 in.) in diameter. These blades can be of the nonconsumable type, made of copper-base alloys with diamond or cubic boron nitride abrasive...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001667
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
...-grit 320-grit 400-grit 600-grit 2. Polishing cloths and compounds Microcloth 5.0-µm alumina 15-µm diamond paste 1.0-µm alumina 6-µm diamond paste 0.3-µm alumina 1-µm diamond paste 0.05-µm alumina Metadi fluid (lubricant) 3. Etchant - Kroll's Reagent (1–3 ml HF, 2–6...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003522
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006757
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... Guidelines for semiautomatic preparation of structural ceramics Table 3 Guidelines for semiautomatic preparation of structural ceramics Step Base Diamond grade, μm Lubricant Speed, rpm Pressure Time, min N 16f Grinding Diamond disc 65 Water 300 ∼180 ∼40 Until flat Diamond...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003542
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
...; the wavelike lines are Wallner lines. Optical microscope; reflected light; picture width ∼3 mm. Source: Ref 3 Fig. 11 Fracture surface of a porcelain insulator, which broke during cutting with a diamond saw. Fracture moved from right to left. Mist and velocity hackle and Wallner lines are readily...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001759
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... transformation product. Figure 6 shows micrograph at X100 magnification. Fig. 6 Microstructure of SAE 1117 carburized and hardened specimen Nital 3% ×100 Hardness was measured on a Rockwell hardness tester with 150 kg load using a diamond indenter. The following readings were taken for the sample...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.matlhand.c9001462
EISBN: 978-1-62708-224-2
.... A series of hardness tests with a diamond indenter under a load of 3 kg. did not reveal any local differences in hardness to account for the development of the fatigue crack at this distance from the weld. Subsequent to fracture, the link opened up to result in the second break at the crown...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.conag.c0090908
EISBN: 978-1-62708-221-1
... of the order of 6% while under tensile stress of approximately 6.9 MPa (1000 psi) and a hoop stress of approximately 6.2 MPa (900 psi). These conditions of operation were far more stringent than those encountered in most applications of PE pipes. A subsurface imperfection in the pipe wall (dark diamond-shaped...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c9001478
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... . (×5). Vickers diamond pyramid hardness tests gave values of 375 in the heat affected area compared with 262 in the general body of the shaft. The microstructure of the shaft is seen in Figure 3 , an incompletely hardened structure with a tendency towards banding. The surface of the shaft...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c0047541
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
...(a) and at the tip of the thread next to the fracture, shown in Fig. 1(b) . Also shown in Fig. 1(b) is a Widmanstatten structure of ferrite, which is often found in the HAZ of welded medium-carbon steel. The microhardness of the cross-section of the rod, measured by Knoop and diamond pyramid indenters...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.med.c9001664
EISBN: 978-1-62708-226-6
... cooled, cut-off machine. The cut sample was mounted in epoxy so as to reveal a transverse section of the plate. The sample was prepared by standard metallographic procedures with the final polish being carried out with 1 micrometre diamond paste. The etchant used was a mixture of: 10mL HNO 3 , 10mL...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001753
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... and etched in order to view the microstructure through optical and scanning electron microscopy. Sample grinding was conducted with silicone carbide pads, from 240 through 1200 grit. Polishing was done with 1, 0.3, and 0.05 μm alumina powders, along with 4 and 1 μm diamond pastes. The sample was cleaned...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.conag.c9001680
EISBN: 978-1-62708-221-1
... by: (i) grinding sequentially on 120, 220, 500, 1000 grit SiC wet grinding paper (FEPA Standard P-Series); (ii) polishing with 6 micron diamond particles on a hard paper cloth with an alcohol-based lubricant; (iii) polishing with 1 micron diamond particles on a medium nap cloth with the same lubricant...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c9001162
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... of all polished in an automatic holder on a special cloth prepared with 1 µm diamond paste until all visible grinding marks had been removed. This was followed by hand polishing with alumina no. 1 on a felt cloth and then with alumina no. 3 on velvet. The surface deformation was removed between whiles...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.rail.c9001444
EISBN: 978-1-62708-231-0
... of the rail was sufficiently rapid to amount to a quench and thus cause local hardening. Vickers diamond pyramid hardness tests gave a value of 675 for the martensitic layer and 220 for the material in general. The latter figure is equivalent to a tensile strength of 50 tons per square inch, which is within...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.matlhand.c9001453
EISBN: 978-1-62708-224-2
... depicted in Figure 2 , which also shows some well-defined Neumann lamellae which were present just below the surface adjacent to the indentations referred to. Fig. 2 ×150 Some hardness measurements were taken on the section examined, using a diamond pyramid indenter and a load of 3 kg...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.matlhand.c9001428
EISBN: 978-1-62708-224-2
... of the weld, using a Vickers diamond indenter under a load of 3 kg., giving values of up to 380 D P. N. Although the results of the tensile test and the rated safe working load of a 5 8 in. eyebolt, indicated that the specified duty should have been. well within the capabilities...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.usage.c9001434
EISBN: 978-1-62708-236-5
..., showing cracking. (× 500) Hardness measurements, using a diamond pyramid and a load of 3 kg., showed the following values: Unaffected Rod 200 VPN Equivalent tensile strength 44 t.p.s.i. Hardened Zone 450 VPN Equivalent tensile strength 100 t.p.s.i. Weld Metal 180 VPN...