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deposition efficiency

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001628
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... Abstract A nickel alloy cylinder plated with chromium along its inner liner, installed in a commercial ice cream freezer, showed gray discoloration along its OD surface. The discolored parts exhibited significantly reduced cooling efficiency as compared with new cylinders. During operation...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001700
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... surfaces. Several of the heat exchangers used in the same application at the plant had experienced a severe reduction in efficiency in the past few years. One heat exchanger reportedly experienced some form of leakage following discovery of oil contaminating the cooling water. This heat exchanger...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c0046378
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... to decreasing pumping efficiency, the leaks resulted in the formation of ice on the platforms in cold weather, thus creating a safety hazard. The leaks were caused by excessive sleeve wear that resulted from the presence of fine, abrasive silt in the river water. The silt, which contained hard particles...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001398
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... developed was of the form known as caustic cracking. It was recommended that water for de-superheater use should be taken after the deaerator and prior to the addition of salts which may deposit or concentrate in the desuperheater. Bellows Corrosion environments Leakage Sodium hydroxide Sodium...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001832
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... and vapors without letting radionuclides escape. Several intergranular cracks were discovered in the vent pipe of one such system. The pipe, made of galvanized steel sheet, connects to an exhaust fan downstream of high-efficiency particulate air filters. The failure analysis investigation concluded...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006825
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... For a fossil-fuel-based (such as the coal-based) thermal power plant, the operating steam temperature and pressure decide its efficiency. The operating temperature and pressure in cases of subcritical boilers are below 538 °C (1000 °F) and 22.1 MPa (3.2 ksi), respectively, whereas for supercritical...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006787
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
..., which functions as a barrier for further carbon transfer Graphite nucleation and deposition, lowering the carbon activity to unity at the Fe 3 C-graphite interface and initiating cementite decomposition into graphite and iron, which is said to diffuse outward through the graphite to the graphite-gas...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001516
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... reading process. Increasing demands of higher densities and data rates require efficient signal coding and errorcontrol techniques. When the error detection and correction code fails to correct an error, such an error is called a ‘hard’ or ‘uncorrectable’ error. Appearance of such an error means data...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.steel.c9001714
EISBN: 978-1-62708-232-7
... ratio. Metallographic investigations revealed that the surface of the attacked pipes consisted of (Cr, Fe) carbide. The metal dusting was the result of a decomposition process (CO to CO2 + C) that deposited C on the pipe surface. Because of the high temperature, the C subsequently diffused through...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001816
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
..., are less likely to alter either the microstructure or the characteristics of steam-side or fire-side scale, deposits, or corrosion products than is flame cutting. Mechanical methods, although generally preferred, are slow and sometimes cannot be used, because samples are inaccessible to the necessary tools...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006838
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... considerations, and quality assurance. The emphasis is on the design and metallurgical aspects for the two main types of metal AM processes: powder-bed fusion (PBF) and directed-energy deposition (DED). The article also describes the processes involved in binder jet sintering, provides information on the design...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001083
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... each) had to be replaced because of corrosion damage. After a few months of service, the impellers contained many through-wall holes. The holes in turn lowered the efficiency of each pump. Pertinent Specifications The impellers were specified as copper alloy C83600 castings (ASTM B62...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003556
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... intergranular pitting of 304L stainless steel condenser tubes in a geothermal electrical power plant operating at >100 °C (> 210 °F) has been reported ( Ref 16 ). In another example, microbiological activity and chloride concentrated under scale deposits were blamed for the wormhole pitting of carbon...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006788
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
..., which can escape into solution. Corrosion can also be stifled by the formation of electrically insulating deposits on the metal surface. The formation of insoluble white ferrous carbonate, FeCO 3 , as a corrosion product is an example; another is precipitation of calcium and magnesium ions from...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001143
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... the blocked section creates large axial loads on the thrust bearing and can result in bearing failure. Major corrosive deposits found on turbine blades include [ 13 ]: sodium hydroxide, sodium chloride, hydrochloric acid, sodium silicate, sodium carbonate, sodium bicarbonate, ammonium chloride...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006813
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... of failure (consequently, the examination may be hindered by a sample that is too small). Discoloration or rusting on stainless steel may be a sign of iron contamination. Heavy deposits on a tube, such as scale or corrosion product, could be caused by overheating. Visual examination will indicate...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003555
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... significantly affect the occurrence and extent of metal dusting attack. The phenomenon can produce rapid metal wastage, producing pits and grooves as the affected metal disintegrates into a mixture of powdery carbon and metal particles ( Fig. 1 ). Metal dusting corrosion has negatively impacted the efficiency...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.machtools.c0091853
EISBN: 978-1-62708-223-5
.... The process continued until approximately 4.5 kg (10 lb) of the 75 μm product was deposited in the collection tray. The product was removed from the collection tray and the process repeated. Eventually, the machine failed due to grinding plate wear. Fig. 2 Macrographs of new (left) and worn (right...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001776
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... surface showing cleavage of brittle fracture Fig. 3 SEM micrograph of fractured surface showing precipitation of carbides in the austenite matrix and the formation of microcracks Fig. 4 Optical micrograph of failed crusher jaw showing large carbide deposits at grain boundaries...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001814
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... in ultimate strength and elongation at temperatures >540 °C. Above 590 °C, the elongation increases rapidly with temperature Fig. 5 Burned away cone plate and baffle, also showing deposits on the quench lines. The cone plate that should be in the upper right-hand part of the photograph is burned...