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density measurements

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001074
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... the unmachined castings as well as from the failed component were used for density measurements. Testing Procedure and Results Nondestructive Evaluation Radiography of the pin portion of the unmachined casting was carried out. Figure 2 shows the negative print of one such radiograph, marking...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001275
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... a measured density of 0.942 g/cm 3 (0.03403 lb/in. 3 ) while the distant material density was 0.940 g/cm 3 (0.03396 lb/in. 3 ). Both values are at the lower end of the range for this class of polyethylene. Mechanical Properties Tensile Properties Standard uniaxial tests were performed utilizing...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003536
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... the true values in the corresponding fracture surface. Therefore, it is essential to use unbiased statistical stereological relationships ( Ref 23 , 24 ) for estimation of the geometric attributes of the features in the fracture surface from the measurements performed on the fracture profiles...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001796
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
.... In addition, the microcrater density (microcraters per area) was slightly greater on the rollers surface than on the outer ring raceway. Fig. 6 Craters diameters on the rollers: histogram ( a ), classification ( b ). The average diameter of the craters measured 2.9 μm Fig. 7 Craters diameters...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.conag.c0090908
EISBN: 978-1-62708-221-1
... Abstract An irrigation pipe made of medium-density PE failed during service. This pipe was subjected to severe cyclic-bending strain of the order of 6% while under tensile stress of approximately 6.9 MPa (1000 psi) and a hoop stress of approximately 6.2 MPa (900 psi), far more stringent...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006914
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
..., it is a static test in which the sample is held vertically while being exposed to a radiant flux of 25 kW/m 2 . The smoke density is measured optically along a vertical path. ASTM D2843, “Standard Test Method for Density of Smoke from the Burning or Decomposition of Plastics,” is also a static smoke chamber test...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006849
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... properties of polymer. This is followed by a section describing molecular weight determination using viscosity measurements. Next, the article discusses the use of cone and plate and parallel plate geometries in melt rheology. It then reviews the processes involved in the analysis of thermoplastic resins...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006937
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... such as density differences, fillers, pigments, and voids. With the described setup, accuracies of 0.1 to 0.3% can be obtained. However, if haze is greater than 30%, ASTM E 167 should be used. Transmission is normally measured and plotted against wavelength. If a material exhibits no internal absorption...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c0090454
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... Abstract A chemical storage vessel failed while in service. The failure occurred as cracking through the vessel wall, resulting in leakage of the fluid. The tank had been molded from a high-density polyethylene (HDPE) resin. The material held within the vessel was an aromatic hydrocarbon-based...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006923
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... °C/min (70 °F/min) −0.39 at 10 °C/min (18 °F/min) Polysulfone 0.57 −0.25 at 40 °C/min (70 °F/min) −0.52 at 10 °C/min (18 °F/min) A method that satisfactorily measures the T g in water-saturated thermoplastics and thermosets that do not have an excessively high cross-link density...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006911
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... to form a conformal contact. If the polymer sample is in a simple shape such as a prism, cylinder, or disk, the density of the polymer can be determined based on its measured mass and geometry. Contact area and contact pressure are easily calculated based on sample geometry. Flat contacts are inherently...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.petrol.c9001512
EISBN: 978-1-62708-228-0
..., misunderstanding of brittle fracture led to the wrong design and construction of an LPG storage tank. The best design specification is to use a correlation between LAST, the Lowest Anticipated Service Temperature, and the DBTT measured by either Charpy tests or DTT. Crude oil Design Fillet welds Standards...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006932
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... gradually approach thermodynamic equilibrium. The approach to equilibrium can lead to drastic or sometimes subtle changes in physical properties. Although aging is often characterized by monitoring changes in excess enthalpy and entropy, these measurements do not necessarily directly correlate with changes...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006930
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... the actual truncation gap for a particular geometry. For some high molecular weight materials, it can be difficult to compress the specimen to the truncation gap which is required for proper measurement. Fig. 4 (a) Parallel plate and (b) cone and plate geometries With cone and plate geometry...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c0048791
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... in orientation, measured up to 20 mm (0.75 in.) in length (excluding one very large indication that measured 90 mm, or 3.5 in., in length), and averaged about 6 mm (0.25 in.) in depth. The indications were predominantly located in the thicker wall sections of the cross. The available specimen of the unused...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001790
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... diameter of the observed inclusions measured perpendicular to the long axis of the shaft was 75 μm. Fig. 8 Micrograph depicting local inclusion density adjacent to the fracture plane (top). Original magnification 100×; as-polished Figure 9 shows the microstructure of the shaft at 800...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006928
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... and International Organization for Standardization (ISO) mechanical test standards for plastics ASTM International standard ISO standard Topic area of standard Specimen preparation D618 291 Methods of specimen conditioning D955 294-4 Measuring shrinkage from mold dimensions of molded...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c9001525
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... cleaning Storage tanks 1006 UNS G10060 Uniform corrosion Metalworking-related failures Introduction After defining the cause of failure by laboratory analysis, most often corrective measures can be established. However, additional laboratory tests are sometimes needed, first to recreate...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006940
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
.... The cyclic stress-strain response is the response of polymers that describes their behavior once cyclic plasticity has modified the metastable behavior under fatigue deformation. Cyclic stress-strain curves for high-density polyethylene (compression molded), impact polypropylene copolymer, short-glass-fiber...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003528
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... Abstract This article focuses primarily on what an analyst should know about applying X-ray diffraction (XRD) residual stress measurement techniques to failure analysis. Discussions are extended to the description of ways in which XRD can be applied to the characterization of residual stresses...