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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001796
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... often used in bearings to minimize the effects of orbital slippage and rolling-contact fatigue. The damaged areas were examined under a scanning electron microscope, which revealed a high density of microcraters, characteristic of local melting and material removal associated with bearing currents...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006829
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... (a) Schematic of the third-body theory. (b) Graph of debris flow concept as a function of debris layer thickness. Adapted from Ref 62 Fig. 18 Illustration of the contact oxygenation concept to formalize the transition from pure abrasive to composite abrasive-adhesive fretting scar interface...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003514
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... sections. Basic Definition of Random Variables Some elements of probability theory are introduced here. Formally, a random variable is a function that assigns real numbers to an outcome of an experiment. For example, the yield strength of 1035 steel can be considered as a random variable...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006768
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... summarizes the theory of XRD analysis and describes advances in equipment capability. measurement depth selection measurement location selection measurement validation residual-stress analysis sample selection specimen preparation X-ray diffraction X-RAY DIFFRACTION (XRD) residual-stress...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003528
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... is outlined as well. A number of case studies and examples are cited. Failures with root causes other than residual stress are beyond the scope of this article and are not discussed. The article also briefly summarizes the theory of XRD analysis and describes recent advances in equipment capability...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003526
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... solid-model elements with simplified example Fig. 2 Simple cantilever beam analysis. (a) Classical beam theory showing key elements (top left) and stress and deflection (top right). (b) Finite element analysis (FEA) cantilever beam elements (bottom left) with FEA cantilever beam results...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003564
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... as materials for rolling-contact bearing components show some practical advantages over traditional bearing steels. The properties of ceramics, specifically low density and high stiffness, are of most interest to gas turbine ( Ref 1 ) and machine tool manufacturers ( Ref 2 ). High hardness, low coefficient...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006773
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... Review in Failure Analysis Case Studies of Finite-Element Analysis in Failure Analysis References References 1. Love E.H. , A Treatise on the Mathematical Theory of Elasticity , 4th ed. , Dover Publications , New York , 1944 2. Fung Y.C. , Foundations of Solid...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001851
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... connected by a flexible mechanical coupling, while DeSmidt et al. [ 5 ] analyzed the stability of a segmented supercritical driveline with nonconstant velocity couplings subjected to misalignment and torque. Kreuzinger-Janik and Irretier[6]used a modal expansion of the system frequency response function...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003551
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
..., such as reaction-bonded sintering and hot pressing, using very pure, fully densified powder of very small grain size. Porosity control for corrosion resistance in structural ceramics is, nevertheless, important. For example, to achieve full density, Si 3 N 4 and SiC can be impregnated, either...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006781
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... turbine generator. (a) Load diagram showing the steam throttle flow in percent. (b) Schematic of the resultant transient and steady-state stresses as a function of time. The periodic reduction in throttle flow is due to reduced power requirements during some portions of service duty cycle. However...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003541
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... Fig. 6 A 1000 h creep modulus of several polymers as a function of temperature. PBT, polybutylene terephthalate; PC, polycarbonate; PPO, polyphenylene oxide; PVC, polyvinyl chloride; PP, polypropylene; HDPE, high-density polyethylene; T g , glass transition temperature Fig. 7 Isochronous...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.9781627082952
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001817
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
...)00111-8 9. Stanova E. , Fedorko G. , Fabian M. , Kmet S. : Computer modeling of wire strands and ropes part I: theory and computer implementation . Adv. Eng. Softw. 42 , 305 – 315 ( 2011 ) 10.1016/j.advengsoft.2011.02.008 10. Stanova E. , Fedorko G...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006779
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... of lifetime prediction with the—even modified—damage-accumulation theories, the behavior of structures under variable-amplitude loading should be evaluated and verified experimentally. Tests under variable-amplitude loading should be conducted with servohydraulic or electromechanical testing equipment...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001780
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
.... 7 ( 3 ), 371 – 375 ( 1975 ) 10.1016/0013-7944(75)90038-7 23. Cottrell C.L.M. , Effect of impurities on fracture toughness of high-strength steel , Fracture Toughness of High-Strength Materials: Theory and Practice , vol. 120 ( ISI Publication , London , 1970 ), pp. 112 – 115...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001832
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... ,” Corros. Sci. , 1970 , 10 , p. 839 10.1016/S0010-938X(70)80102-0 . 2. Benziger J. and Madix R.J. : Surf. Sci. , 1980 , 94 , pp. 119 – 53 10.1016/0039-6028(80)90160-0 . 3. Parkins R.N. : “ The Stress Corrosion Cracking of Low-Strength Ferritic Steels ,” The Theory...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003548
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... the specimen and a counterelectrode to maintain that specimen at a given potential versus a reference electrode half-cell placed near the specimen. The current required is plotted as a function of potential over a range that begins at the corrosion potential and proceeds in the direction (anodic or cathodic...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003546
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... transient and steady-state conditions. Dimensions given in inches. Source: Ref 13 Fig. 7 Ships's service turbine generator. (a) Load diagram showing the steam throttle flow in percent. (b) A schematic of the resultant transient and steady-state stresses as a function of time. The periodic...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003572
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... allows them to function without external conventional liquid lubrication. However, polymers also have some inherent tribological limitations, such as significantly low thermal conductivity, dissipativity, and diffusivity as compared with metals. Frictional heat generated at the sliding contacts cannot...