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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001796
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... often used in bearings to minimize the effects of orbital slippage and rolling-contact fatigue. The damaged areas were examined under a scanning electron microscope, which revealed a high density of microcraters, characteristic of local melting and material removal associated with bearing currents...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001275
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
...Abstract Abstract A high-density polyethylene (HDPE) natural gas distribution pipe (Grade PE 3306) failed by slow, stable crack growth while in residential service. The leak occurred at a location where a squeeze clamp had been used to close the pipe during maintenance. Failure analysis showed...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.auto.c9001624
EISBN: 978-1-62708-218-1
... surface. The findings suggested salt or salt water had leaked into the sensor and caused localized corrosion to the wire, possibly at an area where preexisting damage was present in the coating. Separation occurred in the wire when the current density at the reduced cross section caused excessive...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.conag.c0090908
EISBN: 978-1-62708-221-1
...Abstract Abstract An irrigation pipe made of medium-density PE failed during service. This pipe was subjected to severe cyclic-bending strain of the order of 6% while under tensile stress of approximately 6.9 MPa (1000 psi) and a hoop stress of approximately 6.2 MPa (900 psi), far more...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001004
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... the extent of grain boundary phosphorus segregation exhibited a good relationship with ambient temperature Charpy data. The electrochemical polarization kinetic reactivation, EPR, approach, however, proved disappointing in that the overlapping scatter in the minimum current density, Ir, for an embrittled...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001455
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
...Abstract Abstract Aluminum alloy BS.1476-HE.15 by virtue of its high strength and low density finds application in the form of bars or sections for cranes, bridges, and other such structures where a reduction in dead weight load and inertia stresses is advantageous. Bars and sections in H.15...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c0090454
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
...Abstract Abstract A chemical storage vessel failed while in service. The failure occurred as cracking through the vessel wall, resulting in leakage of the fluid. The tank had been molded from a high-density polyethylene (HDPE) resin. The material held within the vessel was an aromatic...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001516
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... with a magnetic material for the purpose of recording or reading at a high speed the data stored The magnetic coating on the disk can consist of small particles, called paniculate media, or of a continuous thin film. For higher storage density the particles are of submicron size and densely packed. They are held...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001074
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... the unmachined castings as well as from the failed component were used for density measurements. Testing Procedure and Results Nondestructive Evaluation Radiography of the pin portion of the unmachined casting was carried out. Figure 2 shows the negative print of one such radiograph, marking...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003567
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... angularity and apparent density of a particle. Apparent density is ( R / r ) 3 × real reactive density. Source: Ref 16 Fig. 5 Comparison of wear surfaces for low-alloy steel specimens worn in (a) flow-through and (b) recycled slurry tests for 1 h and 1.67 h, respectively. Source: Ref 13...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003536
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... of their number density, average size, shape, spacing, orientation, and the distributions of these parameters, as required. Fractography by SEM is also useful for estimation of the fractions of fracture surface area generated due to different failure mechanisms, such as cleavage fracture, ductile fracture...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.mech.c9001533
EISBN: 978-1-62708-225-9
... performed using the Instron universal dynamometer (Instron Corp., Canton, MA). Brinell hardness was determined with a hardness gauge at a load of 610 N and a ball diameter of 5 mm. Microhardness was determined with a microhardness gauge at a load of 0.2 N. The density of the destroyed babbit was determined...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.usage.c0046242
EISBN: 978-1-62708-236-5
... in the part. A gauss-meter probe was inserted into the cut, and a reading of 2000 G was obtained, which is a high residual flux density for steel (for comparison, magnetic steels have a flux density of about 9000 G). A field test around the boiler-feed pump indicated virtually no electric forces that could...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001640
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... castings showed porosity ( Fig. 1 ). However, tests showed that the density of the new castings now approached the theoretical density of the material, so the durability tests were rerun. The castings again failed the test, and outside help was sought. The fracture surface revealed no evidence that cracks...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001829
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... in Fig. 3(a) and (b) . Exfoliation of the top coat and surface cracking at bond coat are apparent. The crack densities of spalled and welded region were, respectively, 0.312 and 0.546 per 100 μm, and cracks of welded area frequently penetrated the substrate. Cracks are detrimental to coating life...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003550
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... , p 888 15. de Bruijn J.C.M. , “The Failure Behavior of High Density Polyethylene Products with an Embrittled Surface Layer Due to UV Exposure,” Delft University of Technology , Delft, Netherlands , 1991 . 16. Broutman L.J. , “Surface Embrittlement of Polyethylene...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.auto.c9001514
EISBN: 978-1-62708-218-1
... in a visual inspection of the welds themselves. The defective welds were formed due to inadequate current density (possibly in conjunction with inadequate welding time). This is consistent with the microstructure in Figure 9 . It is not known whether the lack of appropriate current density was due...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001368
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... the subsurface flaw. 11.56×. (c) Fracture surface of the subsurface flaw near the ridges. Note the high density of pits and craters. 10.08×. (d) Higher-magnification view of fracture surface near ridge. 100.8×. (e) Higher-magnification view of fracture surface and craters. 504× Figure 5 shows...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003541
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... Fig. 3 Typical creep and creep rupture behavior of nonductile, or brittle, polymers Fig. 4 Crazing fibrils in linear polyethylene (density, 0.964 g/cm 3 ) Fig. 5 Isometric tensile creep curves for unplasticized polyvinyl chloride at 20 °C (68 °F), 50% relative humidity...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006796
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... is given by p = ρ cV , where ρ is the density of the liquid, c is the shock wave velocity in the liquid, and V is the impact velocity of the droplet ( Ref 1 ). This theoretical impact pressure of LDI is well reproduced in numerical studies. Therefore, numerical studies are becoming a powerful tool...