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delta ferrite

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001571
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... is a progress report on the quantification of changes in both the degree of carbide precipitation and delta ferrite content and shape in the cladding as a function of temperature and time to refine the estimates of the maximum temperatures experienced. Delta ferrite Hot cracking Nuclear power reactors...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c9001583
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
... of each specimen shall be suitably etched to reveal delta ferrite. MIL-S-8879, “Screw Threads, Controlled Radius Root with Increased Minor Diameter”: Standard UNJ Thread Data : Threads, in accordance with this specification, shall be within the limits of size specified herein. External...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.auto.c9001704
EISBN: 978-1-62708-218-1
... the interior and exterior seam weld passes as well as extensive sub-surface cavitation. Examination at higher magnification revealed that the corrosion propagated into the base metal along bands rich in delta ferrite, giving the microstructure a flaked appearance ( Figure 7 ). Fig. 6 Cross-section...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001536
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... is generally considered to be highly resistant to the propagation of IGSCC. The other microstructural feature noted in the optical metallography was the presence of pronounced banding of delta ferrite along the axial direction of the forged elbow and wedge material. Stringers of delta ferrite paralleled...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001581
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... solution annealed 1 1.004 304 85% cold worked 2 3.0 to 5.0 305 85% cold worked 1 1.142 Grade CF8 castings (Type 304) 3 Solution annealed with 1.8% Delta Ferrite 1.150 Solution annealed with 8.0% Delta Ferrite 1.659 Room temperature tensile testing of new, returned...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001839
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
..., the typical amount of hydrogen in these steels is usually found to be less than 3 ppm. Austenitic steels usually contain some percent of delta ferrite, a phase that helps prevent hot cracking in welds but provides a preferred path for crack propagation in the presence of hydrogen [ 6 ]. Ferrite increases...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.med.c9001664
EISBN: 978-1-62708-226-6
... was that of an annealed, austenitic stainless steel, having a grain size number of about ASTM 6. It must be mentioned, however, that no quantitative chemical analysis of the broken plate was made. No delta ferrite was observed, even at high magnification. The inclusion content and type were within ASTM specifications...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001206
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... be visualized approximately as follows: During the deposition of the first bead a weakening of the grain boundaries of the coarse austenite or delta-ferrite grains took place in the highly overheated regions next to the weld bead. This weakening was due to the precipitation of manganese sulfides or manganese...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.homegoods.c9001610
EISBN: 978-1-62708-222-8
... heterogeneously ( Fig. 3d ). Despite the low nickel content in all stainless steel jewelry, the microstructures did not show the presence of delta ferrite, the presence of which is not allowed in accordance to ISO 5832-1 ( Fig. 2c ). Jewelry 4 also presented superficial linear irregularities ( Fig. 4a ). Detailed...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003532
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... °F, for 4 h) AISI 304 austenitic stainless steel, and a SEM fractograph of the broken Charpy V-notch specimen Fig. 6 Light micrographs of a partially broken and a completely broken specimen of AISI 312 stainless steel weld metal heat treated to transform the delta ferrite to sigma...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006765
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
...) Microscopic examination revealed a large silicate inclusion (unetched). Fig. 24 Light micrographs of a partially broken and a completely broken specimen of AISI 312 stainless steel weld metal heat treated to transform the delta ferrite to sigma, and a scanning electron microscope (SEM) fractograph...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.med.c9001579
EISBN: 978-1-62708-226-6
... max Ni 13.81±0.11 13.00 – 15.00 Mo 2.84±0.27 2.25 – 3.00 Fe balance balance The metallographic investigation for secondary phases did not reveal the presence of delta ferrite and the nonmetallic inclusions were generally aluminum oxides, magnesium-aluminum spinel, and calcium...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.usage.c9001597
EISBN: 978-1-62708-236-5
.... This is particularly true if the steel is heated to temperatures approaching the formation of delta ferrite and under some conditions of metal flow during pressing. Manganese steels like an SAE 1548 steel have a greater tendency to form areas of sulfide and microstructural segregation. This is due to the high...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001026
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... size, with delta ferrite stringers retained from the as-cast condition. It appears normal for this material and heat treatment. The as-cast grain structure, inferred from contrast effects arising from the flakes and from the microcleavage facets in the overload areas of the fracture surface, was very...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003517
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
...). Figure 6 shows a crack between delta ferrite and sigma phase that occurred in type 347 stainless steel component ( Ref 3 ). Gas turbine superalloys exhibit lower impact strength even at high temperatures, due to sigma-phase formation, and become highly susceptible to foreign object damage (FOD...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003520
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... or fabrication imperfections, abuse or neglect, improper maintenance, improper repairs, and metallurgical factors such as decarburization. Heat treatment irregularities are another major contributing factor in failures. The author recommended using ferritic stainless steel, which is immune to chloride-ion...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.9781627081801
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001111
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
..., the microstructure contained islands of ferrite in combination with pools of martensite of higher-than-average carbon content. As a result, plate A developed very low fracture toughness (compare Figs. 4 and 7 ) and widely different fracture characteristics between surface and midthickness of the plate ( Fig. 6...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001822
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... away from the affected regions. These axles are double normalized and tempered. The microstructure is fine lamellar pearlite with grain-boundary ferrite. Figure 13 shows similar micrographs from axle 2028 at regions 1 to 4 shown in Fig. 11 . The microstructure in region D shows...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003522
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... (DSC) Heat of polymerization, fusion, T g , T m Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) Composition, weight loss with time or temperature Dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) Elastic modulus, loss modulus, tan delta Thermomechanical analysis (TMA) Penetration temperature, expansion coefficient...