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delineation methods

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001257
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... shading of a low-carbon steel in which the zone heated during welding was delineated only slightly next to the seam, the other pipe was etched much darker, i.e., higher in carbon, and the heated zone appeared to stand out darkly against the basic material. The overlapping weld was defect-free and dense...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001436
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... a microstructure typical of a medium-carbon steel (carbon approximately 0.4%) in the normalized condition, a material not weldable by ordinary methods. It was concluded that the post-welding crack arose primarily from the thermal contraction which developed in the weld metal on cooling. It is probable...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.bldgs.c9001715
EISBN: 978-1-62708-219-8
... failure process in which sustained tensile stress and chemical attack combine to initiate and propagate fracture in a metal part. 2 The corrosion deposits on the fracture surfaces of the clean specimens (that delineate the stable crack growth regions), the corrosion and linking of inclusions sites...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001308
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
.... A section of the flange containing one through-flange crack was examined using various methods. Results indicated that the cracks had initiated from intergranular quench cracks caused by the use of water as the quenching medium. Brittle propagation of the cracks was promoted by high residual stresses acting...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.matlhand.c9001527
EISBN: 978-1-62708-224-2
... of test samples. Visual Examination Since a prudent investigator will progress systematically from least to most destructive analytical methods, a thorough visual evaluation is typically undertaken first. The visual examination of wire rope and cable failures is analogous to other metallurgical...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.usage.c9001660
EISBN: 978-1-62708-236-5
... are discussed along with potential methods to eliminate these microstructural in homogeneities. Shear bands Threaded fasteners Ti-6Al-4V UNS R56406 Ductile fracture Threaded Ti-6Al-4V fasteners are used extensively by the aerospace industry for joining structural components. One popular type...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001371
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... originating at the outside cylindrical surface, where large groupings of grains have dropped out. The intergranular cracking proceeded along prior-austenite grain boundaries and was accompanied by interlath attack, as can be seen by the delineation of the tempered martensite lath boundaries with corrosion...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006819
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
.... The article reviews fatigue assessment methods incorporated in international design and post construction codes and standards, with special emphasis on evaluating welds. Specifically, the stress-life approach, the strain-life approach, and the fracture mechanics (crack growth) approach are described...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003570
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... A. and Martin J.L. , Cavitation Erosion of Materials , Int. Met. Rev. , Vol 31 ( No. 1 ), 1986 , p 1 – 26 4. Okada T. , Iwai Y. , and Awazu K. , A Study of Cavitation Bubble Collapse Pressures and Erosion, Part 1: A Method for Measurement of Collapse Pressures , Wear , Vol 133...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001515
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... crack growth was delineated by interference colour oxides that showed a gradual change in the oxide colour and no crack arrest lines. This observation indicates crack growth at a high temperature just before the final rupture of the pressure tube. The shear and ductile fractures were unstable...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003539
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... are not electrically conductive, they must be coated with a thin conductive layer, such as carbon or a metal, to allow examination using a standard SEM. The coating is applied by a method such as vacuum evaporation or sputtering. Coating must be performed carefully to avoid damaging the fracture surface (e.g...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003522
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... method of illumination. Figure 9 shows a view of the fracture surface of a tensile test specimen from a cast steel that has suffered embrittlement, resulting in a “rock candy” fracture. Fig. 9 Low-power light microscope view of a “rock candy” fracture in a tensile specimen taken from a cast...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006757
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
..., polypropylene; PVC, polyvinyl chloride; PA, polyamide; PI, polyimide; PET, polyethylene terephthalate. Source: Ref 7 Practical information derived from polymer analysis methods Table 2 Practical information derived from polymer analysis methods Test method Property Gel permeation...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006776
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... are not electrically conductive, they must be coated with a thin conductive layer, such as carbon or gold, to allow examination using a standard SEM. The coating is applied by a method such as vacuum evaporation or sputtering. Coating must be performed carefully to avoid damaging the fracture surface (e.g...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003569
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
.... , McGraw-Hill , 1986 53. Lichtman J.Z. , Kallas D.H. , and Rufolo A. , Evaluating Erosion (Cavitation) Damage , Handbook of Corrosion Testing and Evaluation , Ailor W.H. , Ed., John Wiley & Sons , 1971 , p 453 – 472 54. “Standard Method of Vibratory Cavitation...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006804
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... investigation professionals, recognized the need for an organization to provide superior technical training and education. Thus, NFPA 921 ( Ref 5 ) was developed as a guide for fire and explosion investigation. Fire and explosion investigators can become certified and will often use the scientific method...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006826
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... and in the matrix of the metals. The subsequent paragraphs delineate some examples. Machinability varies with hardness, deformability, number, size, morphology, and distribution of nonmetallic inclusions in steel due to their effects on the chip-formation process, as influenced by calcium and sulfur treatments...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003549
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... discoloration along the bottom of the pipe. (c) Cross section of pipe wall through the perforation. The sample was etched in ASTM 89 reagent to delineate the microstructure. Uniform wall thickness is approximately 2.9 mm (0.11 in.). 5×. Courtesy of S.R. Freeman, Millennium Metallurgy, Ltd. Fig. 3 View...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003545
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... Handbook , ASM International , 2000 , p 383 – 397 8. Neubauer B. and Wedel U. , Rest-of-Life Estimation of Creeping Components by Means of Replicas , Advances in Life Prediction Methods , American Society of Mechanical Engineers , 1983 , p 307 – 314 9. Brear J.M. et...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006780
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... of Replicas , Advances in Life Prediction Methods, American Society of Mechanical Engineers , 1983 , p 307 – 314 15. Brear J.M. et al. , Possibilitic and Probabilistic Assessment of Creep Damage , ICM 6 , Pergamon , 1991 16. Voorhees H. and Prager M. , Assessment...