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delayed hydrogen cracking

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001839
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... sources of hydrogen are considered as are remedial measures for controlling hydrogen content in steels. steel coils delayed hydrogen cracking austenitic stainless steel grain facets stepwise microcracking inert gas fusion analysis stacking fault energy 0.1%C-14.7%Cr-9.3%Mo-0.2%Si (low nickel...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c9001746
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
... tensile stresses. A second factor was a cluster of non-metallic inclusions which had ‘tributary’ cracks starting from them. Also, eyebolts broke when used to lift a light aircraft (about 7000 lb.). The bolt failure was a brittle intergranular fracture, very likely due to a hydrogen-induced delayed failure...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.marine.c0091036
EISBN: 978-1-62708-227-3
... screws and two unused, exemplar fasteners from the same lot supported the conclusion that the cap screws appear to have failed due to hydrogen embrittlement, as revealed by delayed cracking and intergranular fracture morphology. Static brittle overload fracture occurred due to the tension preload...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.machtools.c9001519
EISBN: 978-1-62708-223-5
... suspicion of hydrogen embrittlement. It appeared that fracture in service progressed transgranularly to produce delayed failure under dynamic loading. The pickling process used to remove heat scale was suspected to be the source of hydrogen on the surface of the bolt. The manufacturer was requested...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001379
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... that 100% magnetic particle inspections are conducted after bolts are tempered; using dull cadmium plate or an alternative to the electrode position process, such as vacuum cadmium plate or ion-plate or ion-plated aluminum, to mitigate the potential for delayed failures due to hydrogen embrittlement...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001178
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... were fine-grained and had not spread by rubbing. Because the screws were electrolytically galvanized, failure resulted from “delayed fracture.” Experience has shown that this type of fracture is seen on production parts made of high-strength steels, which absorbed hydrogen during pickling or during...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c9001731
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
... Abstract Service failures have occurred in a number of aircraft parts made of quenched and tempered steel heat treated to ultimate tensile strengths of 260,000 to 280,000 psi. Some of these failures have been attributed to “delayed cracking” as a result of hydrogen embrittlement or to stress...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.bldgs.c9001219
EISBN: 978-1-62708-219-8
... during crack formation, and that it penetrated during pickling or galvanizing. This supposition was confirmed also by the fact that the wire fractures were not observed during cable winding, but only subsequently to it, and therefore seemed to have appeared only after a certain delay. Cables...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003552
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... Reversible Hydrogen Embrittlement Internal reversible hydrogen embrittlement has also been termed slow strain rate embrittlement and delayed failure. The mechanical effects, as described subsequently, may range from loss of ductility to cracking. To be fully reversible, of course, embrittlement must...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006784
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... steels with tensile strengths of 1240 MPa (180 ksi) or more. A few parts per million of hydrogen dissolved in steel can cause hairline cracking and loss of tensile ductility. Even when the quantity of gas in solution is too small to reduce tension-test ductility, hydrogen-induced delayed fracture may...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001766
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... inspection process that may have been in place. The crack, exposed to both applied and residual stresses after installation within manufacturer’s specifications, progressed in a delayed manner. The process of the fracture is consistent with delayed fracture due to hydrogen damage associated with welding...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001384
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... with stepwise cracking in the material, points to hydrogen embrittlement. It appears that fracture in service progressed transgranularly to produce delayed failure under dynamic loading. The source of hydrogen generation on the surface of the bolt was unknown; the manufacturer was requested to scrutinize...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.auto.c9001173
EISBN: 978-1-62708-218-1
... the same length. These features are characteristic of hydrogen embrittlement, the delayed nature of the cracking being due to the hydrogen slowly diffusing to regions of stress concentration where it promotes intergranular failure. The probable source of the hydrogen was the acid solution used...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001101
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... of a plated bolt is typical of hydrogen embrittlement, but could also be stress-corrosion cracking (SCC). However, SCC can be eliminated, because the metallographic results showed no evidence of secondary cracks or other corrosion mechanisms, such as pitting. Many hydrogen embrittlement mechanisms have...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001093
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... traceable to a poorly controlled manufacturing process, such as heat treating (quench cracking) or chemical plating (hydrogen embrittlement). In this instance, delayed cracking caused by hydrogen embrittlement was initially suspected, because the bolt reportedly had passed a magnetic particle inspection...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.homegoods.c0048674
EISBN: 978-1-62708-222-8
... in.), and coated with a clear dichromate, the fasteners were baked 8 h at 165 °C (330 °F) to remove the nascent hydrogen. Fasteners treated in this manner were very brittle and had a limited capacity of being compressed without fracture. Low ductility at room temperature and delayed failure are characteristic...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001844
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... to initiation of intergranular cracks. A further support to the hypothesis of the hydrogen embrittlement is given by the presence of several secondary cracks on the fracture surface. Conclusions The chemical composition and the core hardness of the failed gear are within the range of the specification...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001815
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... communications with Copper Development Association personnel and supplier personnel.). These observations rule out HE. Stress Corrosion Cracking (SCC) Stress corrosion cracking is the delayed or progressive cracking of an alloy due to the combined effects of a specific chemical environment, moisture...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001447
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... the formation of cracks. An increased oxygen content in the copper will have the same delaying effect, but once penetration of hydrogen has commenced the amount of water vapour formed and the extent of the cracking will be greater the higher the oxygen content of the metal. 5 6 The embrittlement which occurs...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.bldgs.c9001611
EISBN: 978-1-62708-219-8
... the typical observed fracture morphology is intergranular brittle fracture. Additionally, the lack of obvious initiation points detracts from the classical theory of delayed failure hydrogen cracking associated with the presence of residual welding stresses. Furthermore, the absence of fracture initiation...