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degassing

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001522
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
..., which indicated turbulent filling of the mold. Spherical pores would have indicated the melt had been improperly degassed. Based on these findings, it was recommended that the manufacturer analyze and redesign the gating system to eliminate the turbulent flow problem during the permanent mold casting...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c0047144
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... was exceeded, and failure through the wall occurred because of the following reason: the high level of iron oxide found is highly abnormal in vacuum-degassed steels. Included matter of this nature (exogenous) most likely resulted from scale worked into the surface during forging. Therefore...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.steel.c9001234
EISBN: 978-1-62708-232-7
... that localized turbulence is obviated. Degassing and cleansing of the water also would reduce the danger of erosion particularly in the case of softened water, which takes up oxygen and carbon dioxide very readily thus becoming particularly aggressive. Corrosion products Hot water heating Pipe Soldered...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c0089793
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... be used in this particular case. The high level of restraint in this particular welding application may also have given problems even with a low-risk plate, for example, vacuum degassed sulfide shape controlled plate. However, some benefit can be obtained from the use of welding procedures that reduce...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001839
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... or hydrogen content, avoidance of late addition of lime during smelting process, minimization of carry over slag, efficient degassing at deep vacuum and intense purging, recarburization with low hydrogen pet coke and control of ladle slag basicity [ 5 ]. Steel adsorbs hydrogen in processing, principally...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c0047010
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... and fracture toughness at -40 °C (-40 °F) and at room temperature. Fatigue-strength data were also obtained from manufacturers. Except the vanadium-modified 4337 gun steel (4337V) and the British I steel, which were air melted and vacuum degassed, all alloys came as vacuum-melted bar stock (induction...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001760
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
..., degassing, casting, and molding methods. The existence of these pores can produce a stress concentration for crack initiation and growth. Figure 7 shows casting pores. Bolt lengths during the test were measured by ultrasonic device. Stress relaxations were calculated and are shown in Table 1...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.rail.c9001531
EISBN: 978-1-62708-231-0
... for achieving good inclusion morphology. SEA-SKF equipment, the induction stirring-arc reheating system, is being used for degassing and desulfurizing of wheel steels in China nowadays. The wrought wheels made of R1 steel have been used in some lines running at accelerated speed. According to calculation...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006916
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... to the uncured liquid resins. Typical mixing equipment includes high-speed rotor-stator mixers, high shear Cowles blade mixers, double planetary mixers, and unique hybrid mixers. During dispersion of the filler into the resin, mixers are available to apply vacuum to remove air (sometimes called “degassing”) from...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006864
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... and elastomers. Functions of the Extruder The screw is primarily responsible for five of the six main functions of an extruder: solids conveying, melting, melt conveying/pumping, mixing, and degassing. The sixth function (shaping and forming) is performed by the die and webline handling unit...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001111
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... for construction of the bridge was melted by an electric furnace process using charge materials composed of purchased bundles of steel scrap, broken iron molds, and recycled steel scrap from the steel producer's shop. A one-slag practice was used, with liquid steel vacuum degassed by the DH method, which entails...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006835
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... the hydrogen content and alkali element concentration as well as to remove nonmetallic inclusions. For example, vacuum degassing is used to remove dissolved oxygen and hydrogen from steel, thus reducing the number and size of indigenous nonmetallic inclusions and the likelihood of internal fissures or flakes...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001814
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006818
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006831
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003507
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... treated to reduce the hydrogen content and alkali element concentration as well as to remove nonmetallic inclusions. For example, vacuum degassing is used to remove dissolved oxygen and hydrogen from steel, thus reducing the number and size of indigenous nonmetallic inclusions and the likelihood...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003508
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.9781627083959
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.9781627083294
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003509
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... in this particular welding application may also have given problems even with a low-risk plate, for example, vacuum degassed sulfide shape controlled plate. However, some benefit can be obtained from the use of welding procedures that reduce the effect of restraint. In this case, the use of a balanced welding...