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data-reduction techniques

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c9001560
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
... (vegetable oil) showed a tensile strength (UTS) of 1240MPa, a fracture strength (FS) of 1900MPa, and a 51–52% reduction in area (RA). The mechanical properties data (UTS, FS, %RA) obtained with the four different extension rates were in good agreement with a standard deviation of less than 3 percent. All...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001601
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... a highly deformed microstructure. Significant increases in yield strength, ultimate tensile strength, and hardness, and a corresponding reduction in ductility, accompany the flow forming process. Conventionally, tubes are produced by hot extrusion followed by drawing or pilgering. However...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006933
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... a TMA, like the printed data obtained from all of the thermal analysis techniques, are referred to as a thermogram. The thermogram presents the sample dimension either as length or a percentage of original length on the y -axis and as a function of temperature, time, or force on the x -axis...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006761
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... the limitations of the specific testing technique and how to use and properly interpret the data is paramount to understanding how the component(s) are actually responding to the applied loading conditions. Other mechanical tests are destructive in nature and require the fabrication of a test specimen, so...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003525
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... data on temperatures where molecular changes produce property changes, such as the glass transition and other secondary transitions not detectable by other thermal analysis techniques. The superiority of DMA over DSC and TMA for assessing the glass transition is well documented ( Ref 5 ). Secondary...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003549
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
...: the oxidation of zinc and the reduction of hydrogen ions: (Eq 3) Oxidation (anodic reaction) Zn  → Zn 2 + + 2 e (Eq 4) Reduction (cathodic reaction)  2 H + + 2 e → H 2 An oxidation or anodic reaction is indicated by an increase in valence or a release...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006803
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... data are available to identify a trend with confidence, the selection of the distribution and the use of a statistical test are more appropriate. Several fitting techniques exist to match the data to a named distribution. Three of them are presented here. The first one is the least-squares...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003517
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
...-rupture test results, and hardness data can be useful in establishing the reduction of life in properties at the corresponding operating temperatures and stresses. For more details, see the section “Life Assessment Methods for Power Plant Piping and Tubing” in this article. Sigma-Phase Formation...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001674
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... attack of the gold. To investigate the problem, a matrix of test units was produced and analyzed. Scanning electron microscopy, EDX analysis, and x-ray diffraction techniques were used to determine the extent of the corrosion and identify the corrosion products. The results indicated...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001516
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... spacing Data Errors Data errors ( 2 ) are basically classified as ‘soft’ or ‘hard’ errors. The user does not usually notice any appreciable effect of soft errors on the data read and write function of the disks. Error-control coding and modulation techniques play an important role in error-free...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001004
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
..., and marginally increased the rupture ductility. This increase in rupture ductility was thought to be due to the reduction of phosphorus at grain boundaries. Experimental Techniques The studs were manufactured to the French specification 28CDV5-08 and this together with the bulk chemical composition of two...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006910
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
.... At greater load rates, for which no valid force-time signal for applying an FBA data reduction scheme can be recorded, the DKC method may be used to determine dynamic fracture toughness values. This requires an adequate technique to measure the time-to-fracture (e.g., specimens instrumented with crack tip...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006922
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... techniques—all at an acceptable cost. For the material selection process to be successful, it should be intimately involved during part design and in selecting the manufacturing process, processing conditions, and post assembly procedures, as well as during mold design. Of course, it is important...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006921
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... aging tests can measure the time to degradation by depleting the stabilizers that are there to protect the polymer from environmental degradation. Oven aging tests in the presence of relative humidity can also be useful in collecting data that shows the influence of hydrolysis on a reduction in strength...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006936
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... the linear and phased array systems that are sometimes used for large-scale inspection tasks to reduce scan times, the various gating and image processing techniques, and how ultrasonic data are interpreted and presented. A brief section on future trends in ultrasonic inspection is presented at the end...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006782
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... divided into two reactions: the oxidation of zinc and the reduction of hydrogen ions: (Eq 3) Oxidation ( anodic reaction ) Zn → Zn 2 + + 2 e − (Eq 4) Reduction ( cathodic reaction ) 2 H + + 2 e − → H 2 An oxidation or anodic reaction...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006807
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
.... Accordingly, rupture data have been the primary basis for design of components and structures for creep. Various methodologies have been proposed over the years for the extrapolation of creep rate or rupture data. One class of extrapolation techniques that have withstood the test of time involves the use...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006780
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
..., including potential drop and positron annihilation, have been used to assess the volumetric creep condition of a component. The results provided by these techniques are still not completely understood, limiting their implementation. The qualitative-quantitative relation is advantageous, because data...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.9781627082952
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001669
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... with the longitudinal weld seam on the bottom of the header. To assess the extent of damage, magnetic particle examination, ultrasonic shear wave testing, and surface plastic replication techniques were employed. Boat specimens were removed from the longitudinl weld seam both in the failed course and in courses...