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Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003549
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... into two reactions: the oxidation of zinc and the reduction of hydrogen ions: (Eq 3) Oxidation (anodic reaction) Zn  → Zn 2 + + 2 e (Eq 4) Reduction (cathodic reaction)  2 H + + 2 e → H 2 An oxidation or anodic reaction is indicated by an increase...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001601
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... into one operation. It is similar to neither upsetting nor swaging. Essentially a point deformation metal forming process, flow forming results in a part having a highly deformed microstructure. Significant increases in yield strength, ultimate tensile strength, and hardness, and a corresponding reduction...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001325
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... A was joined to the C-D run through a forged reduction socket (see Fig. 2 ). Fig. 2 Construction of the cross-tee, showing the 2-in. Schedule 80 pipe (A), joined to the 3-in. Schedule 80 pipe (C-D) by a reduction socket (E). The remaining arm of the cross (B) was a flanged nipple welded to the 3...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006807
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... at elevated temperatures. The article describes the stages of the creep curve, discusses processes involved in the extrapolation of creep data, and summarizes notable creep constitutive models and continuum damage mechanics models. It demonstrates the effects of stress relaxation and redistribution...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003517
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
...-rupture test results, and hardness data can be useful in establishing the reduction of life in properties at the corresponding operating temperatures and stresses. For more details, see the section “Life Assessment Methods for Power Plant Piping and Tubing” in this article. Sigma-Phase Formation...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003545
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
..., and finally dropping very fast near the melting point. The increase above the minimum in the curve is often assumed to be due to dynamic recrystallization. Data on total elongation and reduction of area at various stress levels for a low-alloy steel at 540 °C (1000 °F) and a stainless steel at 705 °C...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001779
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... and Corrosion Control , p. 252 . Elsevier , Washington ( 2006 ) 10.1016/B978-0-7506-5924-6.X5000-4 13. Hattori S. , Ishikura R. , Zhang Q. : Construction of database on cavitation erosion and analyses of carbon steel data . Wear 257 , 1022 – 1029 ( 2004 ) 10.1016/j.wear...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c9001560
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
... electron microscope was used. Constant extension rate tests performed in the inert environment (vegetable oil) showed a tensile strength (UTS) of 1240MPa, a fracture strength (FS) of 1900MPa, and a 51–52% reduction in area (RA). The mechanical properties data (UTS, FS, %RA) obtained with the four...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006782
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... , ASM International , 2005 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.9781627081832 7. Corrosion: Environments and Industries , Vol 13C , ASM Handbook , ASM International , 2006 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.9781627081849 8. Craig B. and Anderson D. , Ed. Handbook of Corrosion Data , 2nd ed...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.auto.c0090442
EISBN: 978-1-62708-218-1
... degradation of the failed part material, and the thermograms supported this. The conclusion was that the failed sleeves had cracked due to embrittlement associated with severe degradation and the corresponding molecular weight reduction. The reduction in molecular weight significantly reduced the mechanical...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003525
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... for degradation, such as oxidation and hydrolysis. Molecular degradation, often involving molecular weight reduction, has a significant detrimental impact on the mechanical and physical properties of a plastic material. This degradation can result from several stages in the product life, including resin...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006780
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... steel Table 4 Typical elevated-temperature ductility of a 1.25Cr-0.5Mo low-alloy steel and type 316 stainless steel Time to rupture, h Total elongation in 40 mm (1.5 in.), % Reduction in area, % 1.25Cr-0.5Mo low-alloy steel at 540 °C (1000 °F) 8.7 19.6 41 47.0 12.1 29...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001769
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... The water quality data are presented in Table 1 . The gas power station cooling water contains 740 mg/l of chloride, 160 mg/l of calcium, 60 mg/l of magnesium, and the total hardness was around 220 mg/l with a total dissolved solid of 1330 mg/l. The pH of the water was 7.5. The concentrations of sodium...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001700
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... diametral surfaces. Several of the heat exchangers used in the same application at the plant had experienced a severe reduction in efficiency in the past few years. One heat exchanger reportedly experienced some form of leakage following discovery of oil contaminating the cooling water. This heat exchanger...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001780
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... for completeness [ 20 ]. The test direction was not provided. The values are conditional because all of the requirements for a valid K IC of ASTM E 399 were not met by the test samples. However, the trend can still be evaluated. The conditional fracture toughness data are shown in Table 8 , and a reduction...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.homegoods.c0090448
EISBN: 978-1-62708-222-8
... weight of the housing material, the intrinsic viscosity of the resin was measured. A comparison of the results with historical data revealed a substantial reduction in the viscosity of the failed part material. This indicated that the housing material had undergone significant molecular degradation...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c0090454
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... of crystallinity. In general, increased levels of crystallinity result in higher levels of molded-in stress and the corresponding warpage. The significant reduction in the modulus of the HDPE material, which accompanied the saturation of the resin with the aromatic hydrocarbon-based solvent, substantially...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.mech.c9001254
EISBN: 978-1-62708-225-9
... and in the pan with a total of 7 kg aluminum. Fracture of a tensile specimen occurred with low elongation and, apparently, also with low reduction of area. In some places it was coarse grained conchoidal. It was found that the exceptionally low elongation of the cast specimens was due to excessive deoxidation...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001821
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... (250 psi) should be approximately 145 MPa (21 ksi). Unfortunately, very little mechanical property data are available for steels between 550 and 750 °C, because this is above the normal application range and below the normal metalworking range. Oren reported the high-strain-rate tensile strengths...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c0047010
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... at temperature, and (3) impact and fracture toughness at -40 °C (-40 °F) and at room temperature. Fatigue-strength data were also obtained from manufacturers. Except the vanadium-modified 4337 gun steel (4337V) and the British I steel, which were air melted and vacuum degassed, all alloys came as vacuum...