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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006826
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... preventive measures workpiece failures Machining-Related Failures Machining-related failures may be characterized as: Machining workpiece (in-process) failures: Machining condition and parameters contributing to (in-process) workpiece failures: Machine tool, cutting tool, cutting fluid...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006818
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... the undercut, were successfully hardened. Fig. 5 Threaded part made from AISI W2 tool steel that cracked during quenching at an undercuzt at the base of the threads. (a) The two pieces that separated during fracture. (b) Cold-etched (10% aqueous nitric acid) disk cut through the threaded portion showing...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001814
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
.... Similar parts, without the undercut, were successfully hardened. Fig. 5 Threaded part made from AISI W2 tool steel that cracked during quenching at an undercut at the base of the threads. (a) The two pieces that separated during fracture. (b) Cold-etched (10% aqueous nitric acid) disk cut through...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.conag.c0065827
EISBN: 978-1-62708-221-1
... in different types of operations. Cutting tools Materials selection Woodworking machinery Fe-0.48C-0.30Mn-0.90Si-8.50Cr-1.35Mo-1.20W-0.30V Fe-0.50C-0.30Mn-0.40Si-5.00Cr-2.00Mo (Other, general, or unspecified) fracture This example describes how a steel research engineer used failure analysis...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001571
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... Abstract The accident at Three Mile Island Unit No. 2 on 28 March 1979 was the worst nuclear accident in US history. By Jan 1990, it was possible to electrochemically machine coupons from the lower head using a specially designed tool. The specimens contained the ER308L stainless steel cladding...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.9781627083294
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001269
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... Chemical analysis of high speed steel hob (a) Element wt% C 0.94 Mn 0.22 P 0.025 S 0.098 Si 0.28 Cu 0.12 Ni 0.26 Cr 4.17 Mo 4.77 W 46.53 V 2.09 Co 0.40 (a) Balance Fe Fig. 3 Electron micrograph showing the fractured cutting edge...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003560
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... by a cutting tool. In gouging abrasion, the wearing surface is plastically deformed and work hardened by the abrasive forces, so that cutting and tearing of metal occurs on the work-hardened surface. Typical operations that involve gouging abrasion include crushing and primary grinding operations. The wear...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006790
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... stress levels. It involves both cutting and tearing types of wear, in which small chips of metal are removed from the wearing surface by the movement of the sharp points of rock, under considerable pressure, over the wearing surface. This type of action is very similar to machining by a cutting tool...
Image
Published: 01 December 1992
Fig. 4 Bottom section of plug after break, showing enlarged mating surface to that in Fig. 3 . Notches in inner diameter were caused by removal tool; cut-out portion removed for SEM samples (see Fig. 5 and 6 ). 2.2×. More
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003532
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
..., with an additive for corrosion protection and lubrication, should be directed uniformly into the cut. Wet cutting produces a smooth surface finish and, most importantly, guards against excessive surface damage caused by overheating. Figures 9(a) and (b) show the surface of quenched and tempered A2 tool steel...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001384
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
...-spindle milling machine broke during routine cutting of blind recesses after a relatively long service life. The collet ejected at a high rotational speed due to loss of its vertical support and shattered one of its arms upon impact with the work table. SEM fractography and metallographic examinations...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006765
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
..., with an additive for corrosion protection and lubrication, should be directed uniformly into the cut. Wet cutting produces a smooth surface finish and, most importantly, guards against excessive surface damage caused by overheating. Figure 1 shows the surface of quenched and tempered A2 tool steel (59 HRC) cut...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006801
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
.... Confirm if wrinkles restricting metal flow are on the draw panel but are ultimately trimmed. This may be the root cause of splits on the finished part. Wrinkling of high-strength metal can damage tooling, affecting all future stampings. Compare the cut quality on the blank edges with the blank retained...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c9001583
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
... that “improper machining” happened. Although there may be several factors involved in “improper machining” it is likely that a worn tool, insufficient coolant causing overheating, high cutting speeds, and deep cuts may have acted here on all components. More likely, a worn tool, insufficient coolant causing...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001271
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... eye. Failure occurred when two hammers were struck together during an attempt to free a universal joint from an automotive drive shaft. Two samples were cut from the face of the hammer one through the chipped area on the chamfer and the other from the undamaged area on the chamfer. The shape...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c0048150
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... Abstract Grease-wiper springs for cams formed from stampings of 0.25-mm thick carbon spring steel (0.65 to 0.80% C) fractured at the 0.025 mm radius on the stamped 135 deg corner at a 90 deg bend after 5,000,000 cycles. Tool marks 2 to 2.3 mm from the center of the stamped bend were disclosed...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001058
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... by excessive force and impact applications. 1.96×. Fig. 3 Top section of plug after break, showing clean fracture surface. 2.2×. Fig. 4 Bottom section of plug after break, showing enlarged mating surface to that in Fig. 3 . Notches in inner diameter were caused by removal tool; cut-out...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.machtools.c0089429
EISBN: 978-1-62708-223-5
...; and the cutting edge of the flutes was excessively hard. In his opinion, this high hardness made the edge brittle, so that the edge would chip during drilling. The chips caused the drill to bind and then shatter in a brittle manner because of excessive carbide segregation. Plaintiff alleged defective design...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001805
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... intentionally overloaded in the laboratory Fig. 18 Metallographic image of a typical cable stop. This martensitic microstructure is consistent with type 420 stainless steel (approximately ×1000) Abstract Several surgical tool failures were analyzed to understand why they occur and how...