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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c9001517
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
... to be utilized to determine the exact nature of the defect. The investigation describes how cross-sectioning, fractography, and chemical analysis were utilized to determine the type of defect responsible for the signal attenuation. Aircraft components Disbonding Laminates Ultrasonic testing Kevlar...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.mech.c9001533
EISBN: 978-1-62708-225-9
... is contact area. To perform a test for determining the quality of babbit cohesion with the base (steel, babbit), laminated specimens were manufactured: babbit plus steel and babbit plus babbit with the intermediate tin sublayer applied according to different technologies in conformity with Table 2...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001184
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... steel and was adapted to the latter by diffusion only at the periphery of the inclusion. In another section of a hardened piece of the same chromium steel, the steel in this case had a structure of martensite with hypereutectic carbide, while the inclusions consisted of a very fine laminated eutectoid...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001820
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... will be presented in the section “Causes of Service Failures” in this article because this is the leading cause of service failures. Material Defects Material defects may be laminations, laps, seams, holes, hot tears, and so on. A few failures have resulted from foreign material being rolled into the pipe...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c9001546
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
... around the intersection of the S/N curves for the adhesive and the base material. A section was found to exhibit blistering ( Fig. 3 ) after chemical milling. Fig. 3 Blistering on 2024-T4 extruded section after chemical milling. ×12. Metallurgical investigation disclosed that the most...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006827
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... Sn96.5-Ag3.5 221 430 Yes Sn42-Bi58 138 280 Yes Similar to other metal alloys, solder alloys also have the stress-strain curves with elastoplastic properties. Mechanical features of the typical solder alloy include: Relatively short elastic range, compared with the yield range...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006764
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... on the size of the discontinuity or crack, and there also is variability in POD for different cracks of the same characteristic length ( a , Fig. 1 ). The first plots of POD as a function of crack size (often called POD curves) were constructed using moving averages or averaging the response of all cracks...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006809
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... Factors for Option 2 FAD Curves ,” Bulletin 544, The Welding Research Council , New York , 2014 Brittle fracture is the sudden, rapid propagation of a cracklike flaw under stress (residual or applied) where the material exhibits little or no evidence of ductility or plastic deformation ( Ref 1...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003507
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
.... The article discusses the types of imperfections that can be traced to the original ingot product. These include chemical segregation; ingot pipe, porosity, and centerline shrinkage; high hydrogen content; nonmetallic inclusions; unmelted electrodes and shelf; and cracks, laminations, seams, pits, blisters...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001112
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... by the formation of the rust, electron fractography was not carried out. Flame cutting formed a step, as shown in Fig. 1 . The crack had initiated from one corner of the step, located slightly away from the censer of the web. The crack initially traveled in a curved path toward a flange, turned towards...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006823
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... and local loss of material Pitting corrosion Blisters and laminations Shell distortions Fatigue damage Cracklike flaws Creep damage Fire damage The code provides detailed guidelines for assessment and acceptance criteria, remaining life assessment, remediation, and in-service...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003524
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... to isolate the variables. In some instances, ultrasonic testing has proved to be a useful tool in failure analysis, particularly in the investigation of large castings and forgings. Cracks, laminations, shrinkage cavities, bursts, flakes, pores, disbonds, and other discontinuities that produce reflective...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.design.c9001578
EISBN: 978-1-62708-233-4
... with no distinct peaks. The key to the analysis, as is the case with a good percentage of pump problems, was to examine the flow head curve. The flow head curve indicated that at the design flow of 156,000 gpm the back pressure would be equivalent to 30 ft of water. However, when the back pressure was measured...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001815
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... teeth that are curved and oblique and that lie along a spiral at an angle to the shaft. The inclination of the teeth results in gradual engagement and continuous line contact or overlapping action; that is, two or more teeth are in contact at all times. Because of this continuous engagement, the load...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006804
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... that is designed and constructed to recognized codes and standards. This standard includes numerous sections on assessment procedures for calculating the impact of damage mechanisms such as general metal loss and local metal loss, blisters and laminations, weld misalignment and shell distortion, cracklike flaws...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003509
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... to the problem under consideration. The level 1 approach is based on the CTOD design curve method, which forms the basis of the elastic-plastic fracture assessment procedure. This approach has a deliberate safety factor built into the calculations, and it results in computation of “tolerable” crack sizes...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006802
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
...-1931, Project 1237-1, General Electric Company, R&D Center , July 1981 10.2172/6068291 40. Bloom J.M. , Validation of a Deformation Plasticity Failure Assessment Diagram Approach to Flaw Evaluation, Fracture Resistance Curves and Engineering Applications , Vol II , Elastic...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006838
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... Directed-energy deposition Material extrusion Binder jetting Sheet lamination Since approximately 2010, AM technology has transitioned from a relatively obscure collection of processes into an important engineering tool with active engineering developments ( Ref 3 – 5 ) for a wide range...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006806
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... compared to the mating surface. Therefore, single-metal cast-in-place bearings ( Ref 2 ) have been largely supplanted by replaceable insert bearings made from multilayer laminated metals. To increase the fatigue resistance of the bearing material, often the soft metals are coated or plated on a steel...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003500
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... in the article “Reliability-Centered Maintenance” in this Volume. Fig. 3 Typical time distribution of failures (“bathtub curve”) Once the concept of a managed life is prudently adopted over a simple failure prevention concept, design and fabrication costs can be reduced and maintenance and other...