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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001796
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
.... Investigators also examined the effect of electrical discharge on crater dimensions and density and the role that thermoelectric voltage potentials may have played. roller bearing electrical fluting bearing current bearing steel erosion microcraters scanning electron microscopy hydrodynamic...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006783
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... of galvanic corrosion depends on the amount of current flow. The relative potentials and polarization behavior of metals and alloys are key considerations discussed later in this article. Current flow also depends on the physical configuration (the relative area, distance, and shape) of the components...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003548
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... in contact with each other via dissimilar electrolytes. The former is the more common condition. When two materials are in electrical contact and connected by an electrolyte, a galvanic current flows between them because of the inherent potential difference between the two. The resulting reaction...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001765
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... ]. The severity of underside corrosion is directly related to the corrosivity of the soil, which depends on a number of soil parameters, for example, pH; resistivity; redox potential; and moisture, sulfides, sulfates, and chlorides content. Stray direct currents (DC) or induced alternating current (AC) sources...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003549
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... testing is performed for general information regarding the passivity or anodic protection of a material against corrosion and to determine the critical breakdown or pitting potential. This type of testing is performed by two methods: controlling the current or controlling the potential. Standard methods...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006758
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... into the volume of the component. NDE techniques such as eddy current testing (ET) for electrically-conductive materials, full volumetric inspection using ultrasonic testing (UT) for metals, and radiographic testing (RT) are available in these instances. Eddy current testing is typically only able...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.bldgs.c9001702
EISBN: 978-1-62708-219-8
... not be as susceptible to corrosion as mild steel rebar. Polymer and fiber composite reinforcements would eliminate the causes of corrosion problems that are currently observed for steel-reinforced concrete structures. The other opportunity is to apply remediation techniques currently in use commercially, but still...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001647
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... • Failures Related to Welding , Failure Analysis and Prevention , Vol 11 , ASM Handbook , ASM International , 2002 , p 156 – 191 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003509 One of the current priorities within the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) complex is the stabilization, packaging, and storage...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001004
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... to 400mV at 1mV/sec and holding at this potential for 2 mins to allow for a sufficient passive state film to form. The potential is then swept back to near the neutral potential at a similar rate and the corresponding current measured and plotted against the potential. A series of small thin disc...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001076
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... copper) was sound and free of voids and foreign material. Corrosion products contained a large quantity of sulfur. The probable cause of the attack was the presence of electrical current within the system, with sulfides a possible contributing factor. Elimination of residual magnetism and grounding...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003556
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... of an electrical potential that prevents oxidation of metal. This can be achieved through the use of sacrificial anodes or by an impressed current system. In either case, maintenance of a protective potential requires the provision of an adequate current density. Production of iron sulfides by active SRB can...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006788
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... standards such as NACE International TM0212-2018 ( Ref 1 ) and NACE International TM0106-2016 ( Ref 2 ) are excellent sources of information on detection, testing, and evaluation of MIC on pipelines and are updated on a regular basis to reflect the current state of the art. Numerous reviews and multiauthor...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001387
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... the steel top plate material. The presence of highly electrically conducting powder in substantial quantities at the bottom of a good cell must have shorted the electrodes, thus disrupting the electrolytic process. The passage of high current through a narrow cross section might have led to melting...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003504
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
.... Fourth, the list of failure modes in a RCM process includes those failure modes that have happened before, those that are currently being prevented by existing maintenance programs, and those that have not yet happened “but that are thought to be reasonably likely (credible) in the operating context...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006782
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... information regarding the passivity or anodic protection of a material against corrosion and to determine the critical breakdown or pitting potential. Two methods used for this type of testing are control of the current or control of the potential. Standard methods for electrochemical testing are published...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001820
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
...), and the applied tensile stress. The carbonate-bicarbonate environment is believed to be formed by the cathodic potential at pores in the coating where the current penetrates to the pipe surface. The cathodic potential also creates the critical potential for SCC. The hoop stress in the circumferential...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006794
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... to determine V t by performing a corrosion wear test at open-circuit potential, for example, wear test (pin-on-disc) in the corrosive solution. V c can be determined by measuring the corrosion current using the conventional electrochemical system and converting it to the material dissolution rate. V w...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c9001525
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... the range of potentials and the resulting current density at each potential. This curve provides the overall corrosion rate, and can be used to determine the stability of any passive film layer on the surface. In some instances, the pitting rate can also be determined by this test method. The cyclic...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001079
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... as base-load machines. However, many of these units are being used as peak-load machines to meet the current daily and seasonal fluctuations in power demand. These frequent start-stop operations increase the potential for fatigue damage accumulation in highly stressed critical locations. Although...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001788
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... as compared to strain-based approach in all cases. This indicates that stress conditions at potential fatigue regions of the die are more severe and detrimental as compared to the local elastic strains. For the purpose of validation of the current results, failure data of about 50 solid dies has been...